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Gender equality in the Philippines… what’s the real score?
by Jose Ramon G. Albert, Ph.D 1

Filipino version

 Should We Feel Secure or Insecure During the Impending Elections?This March, the nation celebrates the 2013 Women’s Month with the theme “Kababaihan: Gabay sa Pagtahak sa Tuwid na Daan.” The month long celebration is spearheaded by the Philippine Commission on Women. Every March, we highlight the role of Filipino women in the social, cultural, economic, and political development in the country. This year’s theme underscores the leadership role and participation in governance of women. Strengthening the mechanisms and institutions that support women and that widen the arena for their participation is aligned with Section 11 (Participation and Representation) and Section 29 (Peace and Development) of the Magna Carta of Women (RA 9710)2.  Although I am not a woman, but I have been a strong advocate of gender equality, because my work examining poverty and income distribution over the past several years has led me to realize that for development to be sustainable, growth must be inclusive, and for this to happen, it is important that equal opportunities for education, health, and labor be given to everyone, regardless of sex, religion, and income class.

Whether woman or man, rich or poor, urban folk or rural folk, everyone must contribute to and benefit from the economic, social, political, cultural and environmental development of the country.  Poverty reduction, which has been the overarching goal in development, is intertwined with addressing gender inequalities.   Understanding where, why and how gender inequality arises is a vital pathway toward inclusive growth and development. One of the concrete gender policies adopted by government is the legislation of the Reproductive Health Law, which is meant to help women (particularly poor women). Ironically, its implementation has been temporarily halted by the Supreme Court during Women's Month.

To help in the formulation of relevant plans and programs aimed at gender equality, we have compiled various statistics on women and men in the Philippines from various data sources in the Philippine Statistical System. As much as possible, local level disaggregated gender statistics are included to show the various gender disparities and inequalities in the countryside.

On Politics: Men have continued to keep a firm hold on electoral positions in both chambers.

In the context of Philippine politics, women have traditionally not been the holders of power although some inroads have been made in the past decades.  We have had only two women Presidents, and a few number of women legislators, and members of the cabinet (in the current and past administrations), as compared to men.

A breakthrough in the recognition of women’s role in the public arena can be found in Article II, Section 14 of the Constitution: “the State recognizes the role of women in nation-building, and shall ensure the fundamental equality before the law of women and men”. This provision is cognizant of the contribution of women in the overall welfare of the country and calls on the State to provide the wherewithal for women to achieve equality with men. But the attainment by women of a significant role in political decision-making in this country is still a long way off.

While there has been an increase in women’s involvement in politics, women still comprised a rather small segment of electoral seats in the country. As reflected in the higher proportion of men candidates and elected men politicians (over their women counterparts), women still remain in the periphery of the Philippine politics.

Based on the results of the 1998, 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2010 elections, men have continued to keep a firm hold on electoral positions in both chambers. In 2010, women legislators in the Philippines occupied only 48 out of the 222 positions or 21.6 percent of the total seats in the House of Representatives, but this is an improvement from the 45 seats in 2007. Meanwhile, in the Senate, only 2 out of the 12 positions are women. (Table 1)

In 2010, women occupied 3,049 out of a total of 16,547 elected positions from the president to councilors all over the country. This represents only 18.4 percent of the total elected positions showing male dominance in Philippine politics, a slight increase of 1.0 percentage point as compared to the 17.4 percent share in 2007. Women’s participation in politics increased from 3,034 elected positions in 2007 to 3,049 positions in 2010.  (Table 2)

Some may argue that the share of women in politics should not be indicative of gender imbalances in the country, but the fact that there is a far smaller share of women (than men) involved in the political arena is already a gender issue.  Why don’t more women try to get into politics?   Are there barriers to their participation?

On Labor and Employment: Increasing participation of women in the labor force, but still lower than that of men; Majority of persons employed as Professionals are women

The participation of women in the labor force has noticeably been increasing over the years.  However, a wide gap between women and men still persists in the labor force participation rate.  This could be due to gender biases as well as constraints in the household, such as domestic responsibilities (which itself is a gender issue).

In 2011, labor force participation rate for women (50.4%) was significantly lower than that of men (79.0%).   In terms of employment rate, the latest data show that women enjoy a higher employment rate at 93.3% than their male counterparts at 92.7%. Equivalently, there is a higher unemployment rate among men (7.3%) than women (6.7%) (Table 3).

The increasing proportion of women holding key positions in government as well as private establishments is seen in Table 4.  In 2011, there was a larger proportion of women professionals (68.3%) than men (31.7%). Also, the proportion of women government officials, corporate executives and managers was slightly higher (52.1%) compared to that of men (47.9%).  Data also shows that there were as many women technicians and associate professionals (51.3%) as men (48.7%).  But still, most of the plant and machine operators and assemblers, farmers, forestry workers and fishermen, and trades and related workers were men and most of the professionals and clerks were women (Figure 1).

Men dominate all industries except for Hotels and Restaurants, Financial  Intermediation, Wholesale and Retail Trade, Health and Social Work, Education and Private Households with Employed Persons (Figure 2).

On the Judiciary. Rising share of judges who are female, but still  more share for men:  for every one female judge, there are two male judges.

In 2012, Chief Justice Maria Lourdes P.A. Sereno became the first woman chief justice in the Philippines. For the period 2006-2009, the number of women judges had been increasing. In 2006, there were 460 women judges in the Philippines and in a span of 3 years, the number of women judges in the Philippines increased by 24.7% to 574 in 2009. (Table 5)

Similarly, the proportion of women in the judicial branch of the government also increased from 28.2% in 2006 to 32.8% in 2009.  (Figure 3)  However, although the proportion of women in the judiciary is increasing, men still dominated the judicial branch, i.e., for every one female judge, there are two male judges.

The trend shows that there is a road for the attainment of equality of women and men in judiciary involvement; but this journey, however, is far from over.
Examining the regional, municipal and Shari’a courts in the regions, it can be seen that there are regions in which courts are dominated by men and there are also some in which there is almost an equal number of men and women judges.

Majority of the court judges in regions CAR, II, IV–B, V, IX, XII, Caraga and ARMM are men, constituted by at least 70% of them.  (Table 6).
On the other hand, there are also regions in which the equality of men and women in judiciary involvement is almost attained. Region IV–A took the lead across the regions with 49.1% of the total judges in the region being women and 50.9% were men. Similarly, Region III has 48.8% women and 51.2% men judges. (Figure 4)

On Public Service. More women are occupying career positions in the government.

Upon the assumption of President Benigno Simeon C. Aquino III in June 30, 2010, he appointed three women department secretaries accounting for about 15.0 percent of department secretaries in his administration (Table 7). They are Leila M.  Lima of the Department of Justice (DOJ), Rosalinda D. Baldoz of the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE),  Corazon Juliano-Soliman of the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD). His predecessor, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, appointed two women as department secretaries during her administration in 2001 in the person of Estrella F. Alabastro of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) and Corazon Juliano-Soliman of the DSWD.

Based on the 2010 Inventory of Government Personnel conducted by the Civil Service Commission, there were a total of 1,409,660 government personnel in the country (Table 9). About 58.7 percent were women, way above the 48.7 percent share noted in 2008 (Table 8). The highest percentage of women government personnel was noted in Region V at 67.8 percent while the lowest was posted in the ARMM at 31.6 percent.

In 2008, women composed 50.8 percent of the government personnel in the National Government Agencies. Men outnumbered women as employees in the Local Government Units and Government-Owned and Controlled Corporations (Table 10).

In terms of category of service, there are more women occupying career positions compared to men. In 2010, about 61.2 percent in the career service were women as contrasted to 38.8 percent of men (Table 12). Men employees exceeded women in the non-career positions occupying 62.8 percent of the seats in the government with women consisted of 37.2 percent.

…  Let’s not forget that Gender isn’t just about Women!

While many of the sex-disaggregated statistics suggest the need for the empowerment of women, we must caution everyone from thinking that addressing gender disparities is only about women empowerment.  A case in point is the growing percentage of boys who are out of school in the Philippines, as well as the disparity in literacy and learning achievements in basic education between the sexes (in favor of girls). Before getting appointed to head the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB), I released a paper3 that examined survey data from results of the Annual Poverty Indicator Survey conducted by the National Statistics Office. In this paper, I pointed out that “primary-school aged girls are 1.3  times more likely  to be in school than their boy counterparts; secondary aged girls are 1.8 times more likely to  attend school (than the corresponding boys in their age range).” In addition, I also mentioned that trends in the 2005-2006 up to the 2009-2010 National Achievement Test, conducted by the Department of Education’s National Education Testing and Research Center (NETRC) indicate that on average, boys in grade 6 are also underperforming (compared to girls in the same grade) across all topics, whether communication skills, numerical literacy, or analytical prowess.

Such gender disparities in access and achievement (and even completion) in basic education point to inequities in education that need to be corrected. The lack of any interventions to improve school participation and completion as well learning outcomes, whether for poor or nonpoor, boys or girls, will lead to future income inequalities and reinforce, if not exacerbate, current socio economic inequities. 

In recognition of the importance of generating statistics on gender concerns, the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB), established the Interagency Committee (IAC) on Gender Statistics whose mandate includes the formulation of measures that will improve the system of collection and dissemination of sex-disaggregated data at the national and local levels and the recommendation of appropriate measures to the NSCB Executive Board for the generation of data support on gender issues. Sex-disaggregated statistics point to disparities between men and women. Gender equality does not imply that women and men are the same, but that they have equal value and should be accorded equal treatment, equal dignity and equal opportunity. 



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Filipino Version

 Pagkakapantay ng Babae at Lalaki sa Pilipinas …  Ano ang totoo?
Ni Jose Ramon G. Albert, Ph.D.1

Sa pangunguna ng Philippine Commission on Women (PCW), ipinagdiriwang natin ngayong buwan ng Marso ang “2013 Women’s Month” o Buwan ng Kababaihan. Para sa taong 2013, ang tema ng  Buwan ng Kababaihan ay “Kababaihan: Gabay sa Pagtahak sa Tuwid na Daan.”  Sa buwang ito, binibigyang pansin ang papel ng mga kababaihan sa kaunlarang pang kultura, ekonomiko, sosyal, at pang-pulitikal.  Sa ilalim ng nabanggit na tema, pinapahalagahan ang papel ng kababaihan bilang pinuno at ang pakikilahok nila sa larangan ng pamamalakad o governance. Sa ilalim  ng Section 11 (Participation and Representation) and Section 29 (Peace and Development) ng tinatawag na Magna Carta of Women (RA 9710)2  nakasaad ang pagpapalakas sa mekanismo at mga institusyon na sumusuporta sa kababaihan at pagpapalawak ng sakop ng kanilang pakikilahok sa mga bagay na nabanggit. Bagamat hindi ako isang babae, sinusuportahan ko ang mga adhikain sa pagkakapantay ng babae at lalaki o “gender equality”. Sa ilang taon kong pagsusuri ng kahirapan at ng hindi pagkakapantay-pantay ng ating mga kita, napag-alaman ko na ang pantay na opurtunidad para sa edukasyon, kalusugan, trabaho ay mahalagang maipagkaloob sa lahat ng tao, maging anuman ang relihiyon, seksualidad at antas sa buhay, upang ang kaunlaran ay matatamasa ng lahat.

Ang lahat ng tao, maging babae man o lalaki, mayaman o mahirap, taga lunsod man o taga bukid, ay dapat nakikilahok at nakikinabang sa kaunlarang pang kultura, ekonomiko, sosyal, pangkapaligiran, at pang-pulitikal ng bansa.

Ang pagkabawas ng kahirapan, na syang pangunahing nilalayon ng kaunlaran, ay kaakibat ng pagtugon din sa hindi pagkakapantay ng lalaki at babae. Ang pagkaunawa kung saan, bakit at paano umusbong ang tinatawag na gender inequality ay isang mahalagang hakbangin tungo sa tinatawag na “inclusive growth” o kaunlarang nararamdaman ng lahat.    Ang isa sa malinaw na alituntunin para matulungan ang ating mga kababaihan (lalo na ang mga mahihirap na Pilipina) ay ang pagsasabatas ng Reproductive Health Law  Kaya lang, ang pagpapatupad nito ay pansamantalang pinigil ng Korte Suprema. May mga nadidismaya sa pagpigil ng batas na ito, lalo na’t ang pagpigil ay ginawa sa panahon ng pagdiriwang ng Buwan ng Kababaihan.

Upang makatulong sa pagbuo ng mahalagang plano at programa para sa pagkakapantay ng kababaihan at kalalakihan, binalangkas namin sa NSCB ang ilang estadistika at datos ukol sa kababaihan at kalalakihan sa Pilipinas mula sa ibat ibang mga data sources sa Philippine Statistical System (PSS). Hanggat maari, isinama namin ang ilang local disaggregated data on gender statistics upang ipakita ang ilang pagkakaiba- at hindi pagkakapantay ng mga babae at lalaki sa ibat ibang rehiyon sa bansa.

Sa Pulitika : Bagamat dumadami ang mga babae sa pulitika, nanatiling ang mga lalaki ang naghahawak ng mga halal na tungkuling sa Senado at Mababang Kapulugan.

Sa larangan ng pulitika sa Pilipinas, nakaugalian na hindi mga babae ang naghahawak ng kapangyarihan, bagamat sa mga nakaraang dekada, may ilang kababaihan ang nakagawa ng pangalan. Kumpara sa kalalakihan, dalawang babae lamang ang naging presidente ng bansa at ilang kababaihan lamang ang naging mga senador, kongresista at miyembro ng Gabinete (sa nakaraan at kasalukuyang administrasyon).

Nakasaad sa Article II, Section 14 ng Saligang Batas na “Kinikilala ng estado ang papel ng kababaihan sa pagpapaunlad ng bayan at dapat maseguro ang nararapat na pagkakapantay ng kababaihan at kalalakihan sa harap ng batas”.  Ang probisyong ito ay kumikilala sa ambag ng kababaihan sa pangkahalatang kapakanan ng bansa at nanawagan para sa estado na maglaan ng pamamaraan upang makamit ng kababaihan ang pagkakapantay sa mga kalalakihan. Subalit kung pulitika ang pag-uusapan, malayo pa ang agwat ng kalalakihan kumpara sa kababaihan.

Bagamat tumaas ng konti ang dami ng nakikilahok na kababaihan sa pulitika, nanatiling maliit na bahagi pa rin ang bilang ng mga babaeng naka upo sa pwesto bilang mga pinuno sa bansa. Tulad ng makikita sa laki ng bahagdan ng mga kalalakihang kandidato at nananalong pulitiko (kumpara sa mga kababaihan), masasabing  malayo pa rin ang agwat nila sa isat-isa, kung saan kulelat pa rin ang kababaihan sa aspetong ito.

Ayon sa resulta ng eleksyon noong  1998, 2001, 2004, 2007 at  2010, pawang kalalakihan pa rin ang patuloy na naghahari sa Senado at mababang kapulungan. Noong 2010, umabot lamang sa 48 sa 222 kabuuang bilang ng mga miyembro ng mababang kapulungan o 22.6% ang mga kababaihang mambabatas sa Pilipinas. Ganoon pa man, mas marami ang bilang na nabanggit mula sa 45 kababaihang mambabatas noong 2007. Samantala, sa Senado, tanging 2 babae lamang ang naging senador noong 2007.  (Table 1)

Noong 2010, mayroong 3,049 (18.4%) kababaihan ang nanalo sa eleksyon para sa 16,547 ibat- ibang posisyon pinaglabanan mula presidente hanggang konsehal ng bayan sa buong bansa.  Ang bilang na ito ay mas mataas ng bahagya sa 3,034 (17.4%)  elected positions na napanalunan ng mga kababaihan noong 2007 election. Nagpapamalas lamang ito ng patuloy na pangunguna ng kalalakihan sa larangan ng pulitika. (Table 2)

Maaring sabihin ng iba na hindi dapat gawing indikasyon ng gender imbalance ang pagkakaroon ng maliit na bahagdan ng kababaihan sa pulitika sa bansa, subalit dahil sa katotohanan na kokonti pa rin ang bilang ng mga babae pumapasok rito (kumparasa sa mga lalaki) maituturing na isa pa rin itong gender isyu. Bakit nga ba  hindi dumarami ang kababaihang pumapasok sa pulitika? Mayroon bang mga balakid sa kanilang pakikilahok dito?

Sa Paggawa at Hanapbuhay : Tumataas ang partisipasyon ng kababaihan sa hanay ng paggawa, subalit mas mababa pa rin kumpara sa kalalakihan; karamihan sa mga nagtratrabahong “professional” ay kababaihan

Kapansin pansin na sa loob ng mga nagdaang taon, tumataas ang bahagi ng kababaihan sa tinatawag na labor force (o bilang na populasyon na may edad 15 taon gulang o higit pa, maliban sa mga hindi nagtratrabaho, di maaring magtrabaho at di naghahanap ng trabaho tulad ng mga maybahay, mag-aaral, may kapansanan, nakapagretiro, at mga seasonal worker) . Subalit, nanatiling malaki pa rin ang agwat sa pagitan ng kalalakihan at kababaihan kung “labor force participation rate” ang pag-uusapan. Ang labor force participation rate ay ang bahagi ng labor force sa kabuuang populasyong may edad 15 taon gulang at pataas.  Maaring dahilan nito ay ang tinatawag na “gender bias.” Ganoon din ang limitasyon sanhi ng mga gawaing pang tahanan na isa pang maitututing na gender isyu.

Noong 2011, ang labor force participation rate para sa kababaihan ay 50.4%, lubhang mababa kumpara sa 79% para sa kalalakihan. Ukol sa employment rate, o bahagi ng labor force na may trabaho, ipinakikita ng kasalukuyang mga datos na bahagyang mas mataas ang employment rate ng kababaihan (93.3%) kumpara sa mga kalalakihan (92.7%).  (Table 3)

Ang tumataas na bahagdan ng kababaihan na humahawak ng mga pangunahing posisyon sa pamahalaan,  ganoondin ng sa mga pribadong tanggapan ay makikita sa Table 4.  Noong 2011, nagkaroon ng mas malaking bahagi ng mga babaeng propesyunal (68.3%) kumpara sa mga lalaking propesyunal (31.7%).  Dagdag pa rito, nagkaroon din ng pagtaas sa bahagdan ng mga kababaihang opisyal ng gobyerno, corporate executives at managers (52.1%) kumpara sa mga kalalakihan (47.9%). Lumalabas din sa datos na marami ang mga kababaihang technicians at associate professionals (51.3%) kumpara sa kalalakihan (48.7%).  Sa kabilang banda, higit pa ring marami ang mga lalaki kumpara sa mga babae na nagtratrabaho bilang mga plant at machine operators at assemblers, magsasaka, mangingisda, manggagawa sa kagubatan , kalakalan at ibang kaugnay na gawain. Mas marami nga lang babae ang mga clerk at propesyunal. (Figure 1)

Dominante pa rin ng kalalakihan ang trabaho sa lahat ng kalakalan maliban sa Hotels and Restaurants, Financial  Intermediation, Wholesale and Retail Trade, Health and Social Work, Education and Private Households with Employed Persons (Figure 2).

Sa larangan ng hudikatura (Judiciary) tumataas ang bilang ng mga babaeng huwes, subalit lamang pa rin ang mga lalaking huwes: Sa Bawa’t isang babaeng huwes, mayroong dalawang lalaking huwes

Noong 2012, si Chief Justice Maria Lourdes P.A. Sereno ay naging kauna-unahang babaeng Punong Mahestrado ng ating bansa. Mula 2006-2009, tumataas ang bilang ng mga kababaihang huwes. Noong 2006, mayroon lamang itong bilang na 460 subalit sa loob lamang ng tatlong taon, ang dami ng mga babaeng huwes sa Pilipinas ay umabot na sa 574 noong 2009 o may pagtaas na 24.7%. (Table 5)

Sa katulad na pangyayari, ang bahagdan ng mga kababaihan sa judicial branch ng gobyerno ay tumaas din, mula 28.2% noong  2006 ay naging 32.8% noong 2009.  (Figure 3)  Subalit kahit na dumarami ang mga kababaihang judges, ang mundo ng hudikatura ay pinaghaharian pa rin ng mga lalaki. Sa bawat isang babaeng judge, dalawang lalaking judge ang katapat nito.  
Makikita sa mga bilang na ito, na maaring ang pananaw tungo sa pagkakapantay ng dami ng kababaihan kumpara sa kalalakihan sa mundo ng hudikatura ay lumilinaw subalit ang paglalakbay na ito ay malayo pa ang mararating.

Kung susuriin ang mga regional, municipal at Shari’a courts sa mga rehiyon, makikita na mayroong mga rehiyon sa bansa na dominante ng mga kalalakihan, subalit mayroon ding ilan rehiyon na halos pantay na ang dami ng mga lalaking at babaeng huwes.

Sa mga rehiyong CAR, II, IV–B, V, IX, XII, Caraga at ARMM, karamihan sa mga court judges dito ay pawang mga kalakihan (70%)  (Table 6).

Sa kabilang dako, may ilang mga rehiyon na halos pantay na ang dami ng mga  lalaki at babaeng judges, isa na rito ang Region IV–A kung saan 49.1% ang mga babaeng judges kumpara sa 50.9% ng mga lalaking judges. Ganito rin sa Region III 48.8% (babaeng judges) at 51.2%  (lalaking judges). (Figure 4)

Sa Serbisyo Publiko. Mas marami ang mga babaeng humahawak ng career position sa gobyerno

Sa pag-upo sa tungkulin ng Pangulong Benigno Simeon C. Aquino III noong June 30, 2010, itinalaga nya sa pwesto bilang mga Kalihim ng mga Kagawaraan ang tatlong kababaihan na bumubuo sa 15% ng mga Kalihim sa ilalim ng kanyang administrasyon (Table 7). Ang mga ito ay sina Leila M.  Lima ng Department of Justice (DOJ), Rosalinda D. Baldoz ng Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE), at Corazon Juliano-Soliman ng Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD). Noong 2001, panahon ng panunungkulan ni dating Pangulong Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, dalawang babae ang naitalagang mga Kalihim ng mga Kagawaraanna kinabibilangan nina Estrella F. Alabastro ng Department of Science and Technology (DOST) at  Corazon Juliano-Soliman ng DSWD.

Ayon sa 2010 Inventory of Government Personnel na isinagawa ng  Civil Service Commission, ang kabuuang bilang ng mga government personnel sa bansa ay   1,409,660 (Table 9).  Sa bilang na ito, 58.7% ay kababaihan, mas mataas sa 48.7 % share noong 2008 (Table 8).  Ang pinakamataas na porsyento ng mga kababaihang nagtratrabaho sa gobyerno ay nasa Region V (67.85), samantalang ang pinakamababa ay sa ARMM  (31.6%).

Noong 2008, ang kababaihan ang bumubuo sa 50.8% ng mga government personnel sa National Government Agencies. Mas marami nga lang  ang kalalakihan kaysa sa kababaihan na nagtratrabaho sa mga Local Government Units and Government-Owned and Controlled Corporations (Table 10). Sa kategorya ng serbisyo, mas marami ang mga babaeng humahawak ng mga career position kaysa sa mga lalaki, 61.2%  kumpara sa 38.8% noong 2010 (Table 12). Sa non-career position ang mga lalaki (62.8%) ay mas marami kaysa sa mga babae (37.2%).

… Huwag nating kalimutan na ang usaping Gender ay hindi lamang tungkol sa kababaihan!

Bagamat marami sa mga sex-disaggregated statistics ay nagpapamalas ng pangangailangan para sa tinatawag na empowerment of women o pagbibigay lakas o kapangyarihan para sa kababaihan. Dapat ding isaisip na ang pagtugon sa gender disparities ay hindi lamang ukol sa women empowerment. Halimbawa nito ang lumalawak na porsyento ng mga batang lalaki sa Pilipinas na hindi na nakapag-aaral sa primary at secondary schools. Gayundin ang disparity o agwat sa literacy at kaalaman sa edukasyon sa pagitan ng batang lalaki at babae na kung saan mas nakalalamang ang mga batang babae.  Bago ako nahirang na Secretary General ng National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB), isang pag-aaral3 ang aking isinagawa na nagsusuri sa mga survey data mula sa resulta ng Annual Poverty Indicator Survey ng National Statistics Office (NSO).

Sa pag-aaral na ito, binigyang diin ko na ang mga batang babae na may edad 6 taon gulang hanggan 11 taon gulang ay may 1.3 malaking tsansa na makapasok sa mababang paaralan kaysa sa mga katapat nilang batang lalaki.; samantalang ang mga babaeng may edad 12 taon gulang hangang 15 taon gulang ay may 1.8 malaking tsansa na makapasok sa mataas na paaralan kaysa sa mga katapat nilang batang lalaki. Dagdag pa rito, nabanggit ko rin sa nasabing pag-aaral na ang mga trends sa 2005-2006 hanggang  2009-2010 National Achievement Test, ay nagbibigay indikasyon na ang mga pangkaraniwang batang lalaki na nasa grade 6 ay hindi rin nakapagpakita ng kahusayan kumpara sa kanilang katapat na batang babae sa lahat ng topics tulad ng communication skills, numerical literacy, at analytical prowess. Ang nasabing test ay isinagawa ng National Education Testing and Research Center (NETRC) na nasa ilalim ng Department of Education.

Ang mga ganitong gender disparities ukol sa bahagi ng mga batang pumapasok sa paaralan, (kasama rin ang bahagi ng mag-aaral sa elementarya at sekundaryang edukasyon na nakapagtatapos sa kanilang pag-aaral), at ang mga natututunan sa paaralan ay dapat na maituwid. Ang kakulangan ng mga hakbangin upang mapaunlad ang school participation, maging ang pagtatapos sa paaralan at iba pang bagay ukol sa kaalaman ng mga bata, mayaman man o mahirap, babae man o lalaki, ang magiging sanhi tungo sa mas malaking di pagkakapantay ng kita (income disparities), at mas lalong magpapalakas kundi man magpapalubha sa kasalukuyang hindi pantay na estadong pang socio-ekonomiko sa bansa.    

Bilang pagkilala sa kalahagahan ng paglikom ng mga estadistika ukol sa usaping panglalaki at pangbabae o gender concerns, binuo ng NSCB ang Interagency Committee (IAC) on Gender Statistics upang magsagawa ng mga hakbanging magpapaunlad sa sistema ng pangongolekta at diseminasyon ng  mga sex-disaggregated data sa national at local levels. Ganoon din ang magbigay rekomendasyon para sa kinakailangang hakbanging sa NSCB Executive Board para sa paglikom ng mga datos na sumusuporta sa mga gender isyu. Ang mga sex- disaggregated statistics na ito ay nagpapakita ng hindi pagkakapantay sa pagitan ng mga kalalakihan at kababaihan. Ang gender equality ay hindi nagsasabi na ang mga babae at lalaki ay magkapareho, subalit sila ay kapwa may pantay na kahalagahan at dapat lamang bigyan ng parehas na pagturing, parehas na dignidad at parehas na oportunidad.  

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1 Secretary General of the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB). The NSCB, a statistical agency functionally attached to the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), is the highest policy making and coordinating body on statistical matters in the Philippines. Immediately prior to his appointment at NSCB, Dr. Albert was a Senior Research Fellow at the Philippine Institute for Development Studies, a policy think tank attached to NEDA. Dr. Albert finished summa cum laude with a Bachelor of Science degree in Applied Mathematics from the De La Salle University in 1988. He completed a Master of Science in Statistics from the State University of New York at Stony Brook in 1989 and a Ph.D. in Statistics from the same university in 1993. He is an Adjunct Faculty at the Asian Institute of Management. He is also a past President of the Philippine Statistical Association, a Fellow of the Social Weather Stations, and an Elected Regular Member of the National Research Council of the Philippines.

This article was co-written by heads of the NSCB Regional Divisions with Dr. Mewchun WS Pamaran as Lead with Ms. Evangeline M. Paran, Herlita G. Caraan, Mr. Benjamin Y. Navarro, Ms. Brenda Lynn Castro; Statistical Coordination Officer V’s, SCO IV and SCO II, respectively. This article was translated in Filipino by Mr. Ruben V. Litan, SCO IV of NSCB. The authors thank Candido J. Astrologo, Jr., Jessamyn O. Encarnacion and Ms. Simonette A. Nisperos for the assistance in the preparation of the article. The views expressed in the article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the NSCB and its Technical Staff.


3 Profile of Out of School Children in the Philippines by Jose Ramon G. Albert, Francis Mark A. Quimba,  Andre Philippe E. Ramos & Jocelyn P. Almeda. Discussion Paper Series No. 2012-01. Philippine Institute for Development Studies. Available at


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Table 1. Elected Members of Congress, 1998-2010 Election Years

Election Year Chamber Positions Filled No. of Elected 
Women Men
1998 Senate 12 2 10
House of Representatives 208 20 188
2001 Senate 13 1 12
House of Representatives 209 33 176
2004 Senate 12 3 9
House of Representatives 210 32 178
2007 Senate 12 1 11
House of Representatives 218 45 173
2010 Senate 12 2 10
House of Representatives 222 48 174

Source: Commission on Election


Table 2. Number of Elected Women and Men by Position and Sex: 1995, 1998, 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2010

Position 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010
Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men
President 0 1 0 1 .. .. 1 0 1 0 0 1
Vice-President 0 1 1 0 .. .. 0 1 0 1 0 1
Senators 3 9 2 10 1 12 3 9 1 11 2 10
Congressmen 21 183 20 188 33 172 32 179 45 173 48 174
Governors 9 67 13 65 15 62 15 62 18 62 16 60
Vice-Governors 11 65 9 69 10 67 7 71 13 67 10 65
Board Members 77 596 93 629 120 607 125 623 123 635 120 614
Mayors 136 1,469 233 1,374 241 1,301 244 1,352 274 1,320 294 1210
Vice-Mayors 135 1,470 174 1,433 192 1,356 222 1,375 230 1,365 245 1260
Councilors 1834 11,255 2139 11,007 2198 10,467 2251 10,881 2329 10,797 2314 10103
TOTAL 2,226 15,116 2,684 14,776 2,810 14,044 2,900 14,553 3,034 14,431 3,049 13,498

Source: House of Representative and Senate


Table 3. Employment Indicators on Women and Men Aged 15 Years Old and Over
Philippines: 2008-2011
'(Number in thousands and rate in percent)

Employment Indicator 2008 2009 2010 2011
Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men
Labor Force  14,132 22,673 14,719 23,175 15,164 23,730 15,661 24,345
Labor Force Participation Rate 48.6 78.8 49.4 78.7 49.7 78.5 50.4 79.0
Employment Rate 92.9 92.4 92.8 92.4 93.1 92.4 93.3 92.7
Unemployment Rate 7.1 7.6 7.2 7.6 6.9 7.6 6.7 7.3

Source of basic data: National Statistics Office

1. Figures are average estimates of the four quarterly Labor Force Survey rounds.
2. Details may not add up to tatals due to rounding.


Table 4. Employed Persons by Major Occupation Group by Sex
Philippines, 2008-2011
(In thousands)

Major Occupation Group 2008 2009 2010 2011
Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men
Officials of Government and  Special Interest-Organizations, Corporate Executives, Managers, Managing Proprietors and Supervisors 2,372 1,955 2,520 2,202 2,625 2,354 2,720 2,497
Professionals 1,047 479 1,100 508 1,155 531 1,183 549
Technicians and Associate Professionals 444 432 484 449 495 458 505 480
Clerks 1,094 621 1,154 706 1,250 754 1,308 801
Service Workers and Shop and Market Sales Workers 1,716 1,679 1,865 1,808 1,947 1,891 2,102 2,039
Farmers, Forestry Workers and Fishermen 856 5,143 834 5,015 843 4,904 840 4,875
Traders and Related Workers 597 2,134 564 2,099 579 2,213 576 2,193
Plant and Machine Operators and Assemblers 225 2,129 189 2,031 219 2,040 247 1,998
Laborers and UnskilledWorkers 4,759 6,262 4,926 6,462 4,970 6,652 5,104 7,013
Special Occupations 19 128 22 128 30 126 33 129

Source of basic data: National Statistics Office.

1. Figures are average estimates of the four quarterly Labor Force Survey rounds.
2. Details may not add up to tatals due to rounding.


Table 5. Number of Judges, by Type of Court, by Sex, Philippines: 2006-2009

COURT 2006 2007 2008 2009
Male Female  Total Male Female  Total Male Female  Total Male Female  Total
Total 1,167 460 1,627 1,245 567 1,812 1,186 576 1,762 1,176 574 1,750
Proportion 71.73% 28.27%   68.71% 31.29%   67.31% 32.69%   67.20% 32.80%  
Supreme Court 9 5 14 9 5 14 10 5 15 12 2 14
Court of Appeals 47 18 65 47 21 68 44 19 63 45 22 67
Sandigan Bayan 11 3 14 11 3 14 12 2 14 11 2 13
Court of Tax Appeals 4 2 6 4 2 6 4 2 6 4 5 9
Regional Trial Courts 597 211 808 575 224 799 542 228 770 527 223 750
Metropolitsn Trial Courts 31 31 62 35 33 68 32 37 69 35 34 69
Municipal Trial Courts in Cities 112 46 158 129 66 195 125 67 192 112 61 173
Municipal Trial Courts  165 80 245 180 110 290 178 110 288 187 115 302
Municipal Circuit Trial Courts 163 63 226 225 99 324 209 103 312 214 108 322
Shari'a District Courts - - - - 1 1 - - - - - -
Shari'a Circuit Courts 28 1 29 30 3 33 30 3 33 29 2 31

Source: Supreme Court.


Table 6. Number of Judges
in Regional/Municipal/Shari’a Courts,
by Sex, by Region: as of December 2012

Region Men Women
NCR 147 129
CAR 33 13
I 63 51
II 58 23
III 86 82
IV-A 84 81
IV-B 35 10
V 83 37
VI 80 51
VII 88 41
VIII 68 36
IX 35 12
X 53 35
XI 26 22
XII 38 7
Caraga 26 5
ARMM 32 6

Source: Office of the Court Administrator, Supreme Court of the Philippines


Table 7. Number of Department Secretaries by Sex: 2001 and 2010

Male % Female % Total
2010 (Aquino Administration) 17 85.0 3 15.00 20
2001 (Arroyo Adminsitration) 18 90.0 2 10.00 20



Table 8. Number of Government Personnel By Sex : 2008

Region Total Male Female Not Indicated
Philippines 1,314,038 632,624 640,304 41,110
NCR 506,103 295,190 206,169 4,744
CAR 37,819 16,606 21,162 51
R1 66,122 28,174 37,874 74
R2 23,258 12,059 11,199 0
R3 104,854 40,999 48,325 15,530
R4 100,758 39,861 60,116 781
R5 66,497 26,557 39,071 869
R6 60,589 21,519 34,975 4,095
R7 59,902 27,873 29,935 2,094
R8 66,455 25,141 30,586 10,728
R9 52,131 23,967 27,752 412
R10 27,405 13,393 13,691 321
R11 26,599 10,292 15,935 372
R12 41,684 17,353 23,622 709
Caraga 23,186 9,892 13,019 275
ARMM 50,676 23,748 26,873 55

Source: Civil Service Commission

Table 9. Number of Government Personnel By Sex and Major Subdivision: 2010













































































Source: Civil Service Commission


Table 10. Number of Government Personnel By Sex : 2008

Major Subdivision Total Male % Female % Not Indicated %
Total 1,313,538 632,124 48.12 640,304 48.75 41,110 3.13
NGA 832,676 376,751 45.25 422,655 50.76 33,270 4.00
GOCC 99,360 58,234 58.61 40,323 40.58 803 0.81
LGU 381,502 197,139 51.67 177,326 46.48 7,037 1.84

Source: Civil Service Commission


Table 11. Number of Government Personnel By Sex and Category of Service: 2008

Category of Service Total Male % Female % Not Indicated %
Total 1,313,538 632,124 48.12 640,304 48.75 41,110 3.13
Career 1,153,651 531,040 46.03 583,045 50.54 39,566 3.43
Non-Career 159,887 101,084 63.22 57,259 35.81 1,544 0.97


Table 12. Number of Government Personnel by Region,
by Category of Service and by Sex: 2010





















































































































Source: Civil Service Commission




PHILIPPINES: 2011                 


Figure 3. Proportion of Women in the Judicial Branch of the Government
Philippines: 2006–2009


Figure 4. Proportion of Women & Men in the Regional/Municipal/Shari’a Courts, by Region, as of December 2012


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