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Headlines Statistically Speaking

SOME THINGS YOU BETTER KNOW ABOUT TYPHOONS IN THE PHILIPPINES!
by Dr. Romulo A. Virola 1
Secretary General, NSCB

Do you know in which month of the year it is most dangerous to travel by sea?
Do you know which month suffers the heaviest damage from typhoons?
And do you know the favorite route of the most destructive typhoons in the Philippines?

The lovable Ernie Baron, may he rest in peace, probably knew all the “correct” answers,   but I bet many of you don’t!

Last month was Disaster Consciousness Month, and of course we still remember the tragic fate of the passengers of Princess of the Stars on June 21, even as, after the usual initial condemnation and investigation of everyone and anyone who could be blamed, everything now seems to have been put in the bin of history. But with climate change and its inconvenient truth of consequences becoming all too real, and nay surreal, surely, we should ever be prepared for all types of disasters. As we have always said, statistics are very useful and in fact, necessary for informed decisions! Preparing ourselves to cope with disasters therefore, will benefit from good quality disaster statistics.

More than 15 years ago, the NSCB tried to put some order in the compilation of disaster statistics in the Philippines when we created a Task Force (TF) to address the very often conflicting figures on damages/casualties inflicted by natural disasters. The NSCB approved the statistical framework and the disaster information system developed by the TF and directed its implementation with the NDCC, NSCB and  DILG  as the key agencies involved. Unfortunately, resource constraints and/or the lack of political will to invest in statistics and in statisticians hindered progress.

Nonetheless, there are available statistics that we can examine. As the typhoons have come, this article focuses on statistics on typhoons . So dear readers, what should we know about typhoons?

  1. Tropical cyclones are classified into tropical depression, with winds up to 38 miles per hour, tropical storm with winds from 39 to 73 miles per hour    and typhoons with winds of at least 74 miles per hour.    

  2. Because around the opening of classes in June, our children enjoy singing “rain, rain go away come again another day” the gods listen and indeed the rains would come another day! Historically from 1948 to 2007, tropical cyclones (TC) and typhoons (TY) entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) most frequently in July ( 197 TC, 94 TY), August ( 189 TC, 88 TY ), September ( 177 TC, 92 TY ) and October ( 153 TC, 92 TY). The highest number of tropical cyclones to enter the PAR occurred in 1993 while the lowest occurred in 1998. During the last 8 years the flavored months of these typhoons were July (12) followed by August and September (10 each).  In fact, tropical cyclones and typhoons occurred most often in the 3rd quarter, followed by the 4th quarter and least during the first quarter. ( Table 1, Figure 1 and Figure 2 )

  3. On an annual basis during the period 2000-2007, the most number of tropical cyclones occurred in 2003 and 2004 ( 25 each); while the most number of typhoons occurred in 2004 (13) followed by 2006 (11) and 2007 (10). From 27 typhoons during the period 2000-2003, the number ominously increased to 39 from 2004-2007! Is this one of the effects of global warming? I told you so, Al Gore might be saying! (Table 2 )

  4. But while the most number of typhoons occur in the third quarter, the strongest ones come during the last  three Ber..rrrrr months of the year. Remember Reming, Rosing and Loleng? And Sening and Anding,  among those of you who were so proud of your beepers?

  5. The strongest typhoons are not necessarily the most destructive in terms of the cost of damages incurred. The five costliest typhoons that hit us are Ruping, Rosing, Kadiang, Loleng and Milenyo. They cost us more than P40 billion in current prices.(Table 3)

  6. Sadly for our kababayang Bicolanos , the road most traveled by the destructive fury of the  strongest typhoons is the route leading to Virac, Catanduanes! Four of the five strongest that came our way from 1947 to  2006 had their highest wind speed recorded in Virac!. And they followed essentially the same directional pattern, coming from the eastern part of the country and moving northwest. (Table 4  and Figures 3a – 3e ).

  7. Coincidence or not, 9 of the 20 deadliest ( highest number of deaths) cyclones all happened in November! The deadliest of all, Uring (Thelma) which was not even a typhoon but only a tropical storm  occurred on 2-7 November 1991 that swept flash floods across parts of Leyte and Negros Occidental, but mainly in Ormoc City and left 5101 deaths (Table 5  and Figure 4)

  8. The most erratic and the longest tropical cyclone in the PAR was typhoon “Miding” (Wayne) which hit us from Aug 17 – Sept 4 1986. Miding did 2 exits and 2 entries before its final exit over the northwestern border of the PAR. Be careful then when you have a neighbor named “Miding” ! (Figure 5 ).

  9. Lucky for us, less than 50% of the tropical cyclones that entered the PAR actually landed/crossed. Imagine the damage if all of them landed? (Table 6)

  10. Menacingly, the typhoons are getting stronger and stronger, especially since the 90s. From 1947 to 1960, the strongest typhoon to hit us was Amy in December 1951 with a highest wind speed recorded at 240 kph in Cebu. From 1961 to 1980, Sening (Joan) was the record holder with a highest wind speed of 275  kph recorded in Virac in October 1970. During the next twenty years, the highest wind speed was recorded by Anding (Irma) and Rosing (Angela) at 260 kph in Daet (November 1981) and in Virac (Oct-Nov 1995), respectively. In the current millennium, the highest wind speed has soared to 320 kph recorded by Reming (Durian) in Nov-Dec. 2006 in Virac (Table 7 and Figure 6). In fact, typhoon signal no. 4 is a fairly recent category!  If this is due to climate change, we better be prepared for even stronger ones in the future! What have we done to our Mother Nature? Take heed, ye sinners! Time to beg forgiveness from wife, husband,  co-workers!

  11. Looking at rainfall data for the period 1993-2003 from 8 sampling stations   the pattern for Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Manila and Iloilo is basically the same with July being the wettest month. Mactan, Zamboanga City and Davao City follow a similar pattern and on the average, the wettest month is August for Zamboanga, but October for Mactan and Davao. However, the situation in Albay is very different with December being the wettest month, followed by November and January. The wettest areas during the period covered are those under the Albay and Pangasinan sampling stations with the heaviest average monthly  rainfall recorded at 669.9 millimeters in Albay for December followed by 610.5 millimeters in Pangasinan for July. (Table 8  and Figure 7)

After reading a draft of this article, a friend made two suggestions to solve some of our national problems: (1) to lessen the congestion of recidivists at the Bilibid Prison, build one for them in Virac and (2) to reduce the cost of legislation, transfer congress to Catanduanes and require 100% attendance or else they lose their pork.

Quite naughty! More seriously, however, these statistics may mean the following ( I am not a weather expert):

  1. There had been proposals in the past which either had fallen on deaf ears or no one had mustered enough political will to do something about but really,  DepEd should consider opening classes in  October so that our poor schoolchildren will be saved from the typhoon  and wet months of July, August and September (And serendipitously, this may yet prove to be an effective population management strategy as the parents will be forced to play with their children instead of with themselves during the those rainy days and nights! Population Commission, don’t you think so?)

  2. If the school opening is changed, businesses catering to summer holidays may have to shift to other types of business. Conversely, opportunities will open up to business-minded men and women targeting as clients students who will be out of school in July, August and September.

  3. People should not leave the house without raincoats/umbrellas in July, August and September. And during these months, hawkers should be selling raincoats and umbrellas in addition to Fish balls, Maxx, Kwek-kwek at  Mani.

  4. Boat captains and Sulpicio Lines should be very very careful in deciding to go out to sea when a typhoon is expected to enter the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) during the last quarter. At the same time, the DOTC, the Coast Guard and other regulatory authorities should never for a moment lower their guards down. And don’t say you have not been warned!

  5. If a tropical depression/typhoon is coming from the eastern side of Luzon, moving westwards, better brace up for something big!

  6. The residents of Virac may have to consider living elsewhere.

  7. Engineers and architects will have to build stronger houses, buildings, bridges, etc. as typhoons have become stronger over the years.

  8. If one needs to take a boat in October, November or December, double, triple and quadruple check the weather. No matter how you find PAGASA predictably undependable in forecasting the weather, better believe them at least during the last quarter of the year, and maybe, just to be on the safe side, add one to the typhoon signal number that they hoist. Buy travel insurance too. And to make her truly happy when you go, how about putting in your mother-in-law as beneficiary?

Indeed, we could run our lives much better if only we learned to collect and to use statistics,! More importantly, if only we, both the government and the private sector learned to invest in statistics! How sad that the NSCB has not been allowed to hire a lot  more people so that we could provide more statistics to our people towards a knowledge-based Philippines!

Meanwhile, let us all pray that our athletes will be able to do their best in the spectacular show now going on in Beijing! Go for Gold! And may the Olympics be spared the typhoons that visit China like they do the Philippines.

By the way, do you know why in the good old days, typhoons were named after women? Maybe our friends at the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women know the answer?

Reactions and views are welcome thru email to the author at ra.virola@nscb.gov.ph.

 

________________

1 Secretary General of the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) and Chairman of the Statistical Research and Training Center (SRTC). He holds a Ph. D. in Statistics from the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, U.S.A. and has taught mathematics and statistics at the University of the Philippines. He is also a past president of the Philippine Statistical Association. This article is co-written by Mark Rex S. Romaraog, Statistical Coordination Officer of the NSCB. The authors thank Edward Lopez Dee, Noel S. Nepomuceno, Fe Vida N. Dy-Liacco, Cynthia S. Regalado, Aileen S. Oliveros, Jessamyn O. Encarnacion, Redencion M. Ignacio (who suggested the topic) and Candido J. Astrologo, Jr. for the assistance in the preparation of the article.

2 NSCB Resolution No. 7 Series of 1993, approved on 5 August, 1993.

3 Data sources include NDCC, PAGASA (www.pagasa.dost.gov.ph), NSCB and the very useful compilation of Dominic Alojado (with additional information by  David Michael V. Padua) of Typhoon2000.com. The website of Mr. Padua is interestingly informative but he warns users not to use his data “to make life or death decisions”. 

4 An informative article on the typhoon chronology of the Philippines  entitled “Typhoons in the Philippine Islands, 1566-1900” was written by Ricardo Garcia-Herrera, Pedro Ribera, Emiliano Hernandez and Luis Gimeno uploaded in http://www.typhoon2000.ph/stats/PhilippineTyphoons1566-1900.pdf.

5 Unofficial count was more than 8000 deaths including missing persons.

6 Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Manila, Albay, Iloilo, Mactan, Zamboanga City and Davao City. There are 57 sampling stations all over the country.

 

Posted 11 August 2008.

 

Table 1. Number of Tropical Cyclones by Category in the Philippine Area of Responsibility

  Jan Feb Mar Q1 Apr May Jun Q2 Jul Aug Sep Q3 Oct Nov Dec Q4 Total
                                   
1948 to 2007                                  
Total 26 18 17 61 27 58 92 177 197 189 177 563 153 126 81 360 1161
                                   
Tropical Depression (TD) 9 7 2 18 7 16 17 40 53 44 34 131 24 22 20 66 255
Tropical Storm (TS) 9 8 9 26 6 19 26 51 50 57 51 158 37 33 21 91 326
Typhoon (TY) 8 3 6 17 14 23 49 86 94 88 92 274 92 71 40 203 580
                                   
2000 to 2007                                  
Total 2 2 5 9 4 13 11 28 26 22 22 70 16 18 7 41 148
                                   
Tropical Depression (TD) 1 2 2 5 2 4 1 7 8 5 5 18 4 5 4 13 43
Tropical Storm (TS) 1 0 2 3 0 5 2 7 6 7 7 20 3 4 2 9 39
Typhoon (TY) 0 0 1 1 2 4 8 14 12 10 10 32 9 9 1 19 66
                                   

Source: PAGASA and www.typhoon2000.com

 

Figure 1. Tropical Cyclone Frequency in the Philippine Area of Responsibility
1948 to 2007

Source: PAGASA and www.typhoon2000.com

 

Figure 2. Number of Tropical Cyclones by Category in the Philippine Area of Responsibility
1948 to 2007

Source: PAGASA and www.typhoon2000.com

 

Table 2. Number of Tropical Cyclones by Category in the Philippine Area of Responsibility

Year Category
TD TS TY Total
Total 43 39 66 148
         
2000 5 5 8 18
2001 6 7 4 17
2002 5 2 6 13
2003 8 8 9 25
2004 5 7 13 25
2005 11 1 5 17
2006 3 6 11 20
2007 0 3 10 13

Source: PAGASA and www.typhoon2000.com

 

Table 3. Costliest Tropical Cyclones in the Philippines
1947-2006

      NAME PERIOD OF OCCURRENCE DAMAGE IN PESOS*
(in Billion Php)
1.   RUPING (Mike) November 10-14, 1990  10.846 
2.   ROSING (Angela) October 30-November 4, 1995  10.829 
3.   KADIANG (Flo) September 30-October 7, 1993    8.752 
4.   LOLENG (Babs) October 15-24, 1998 6.787
5.   MILENYO (Xangsane) September 25-30, 2006 6.61
6.   UNSANG (Ruby) October 21-26, 1998 5.636
7.   ILIANG (Zeb) October 7-18, 1998 5.375
8.   REMING (Durian) November 26-December 1, 2006 5.086
9.   NITANG (Ike) August 31-September 4, 1984 4.1
10. REMING (Xangsane) October 26-November 1, 2000 3.944
11. FERIA (Utor) July 2-7, 2001 3.586
12. HARUROT (Imbudo) July 19-23, 2003 3.24
Source: PAGASA and www.typhoon2000.com November 6-9, 2001 3.2
14. MAMENG (Sybil) September 27-October 1, 1995 3.17
  October 16-31, 1991 3.072
16. YONING (Skip) November 5-8, 1988 2.767
17. MONANG (Lola) December 2-7, 1993 2.463
18. SALING (Dot) October 15-20, 1985 2.133
Source: PAGASA and www.typhoon2000.com August 7-14, 1987 2.066
20. YOYONG (Nanmadol) November 29-December 4, 2004 2.036
     

*Not adjusted to current inflation rate of the Philippine Peso

This summary is taken from NDCC publications, and historical archives.  

Compiled by Dominic Alojado with additional information by David Michael V. Padua of Typhoon2000.com.

Source: http://www.typhoon2000.ph/stats/CostliestPhilippineTyphoons.htm
(accessed July 23, 2008)

 

Table 4. Five Strongest Tropical Cyclones in the Philippines
1947-2006

Name Period of Occurrence Highest Wind Speed Recorded Place Observed
       
1.   REMING (Durian) November 26-December 1, 2006 320 kph Virac, Catanduanes
2.   SENING (Joan) October 11-15, 1970 275 kph Virac, Catanduanes
3.   ROSING (Angela) October 30-November 4, 1995 260 kph Virac, Catanduanes
4.   ANDING (Irma) November 21-27, 1981 260 kph Daet, Camarines Norte
5.   LOLENG (Babs) October 15-24, 1998 250 kph Virac, Catanduanes
       

Source: http://www.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/cab/5_tc_landfall_2.htm (accessed July 21,2008)

 

Figure 3. Directional Pattern of Five Strongest Typhoons in the Philippines

Source: http://www.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/cab/5_tc_landfall_2.htm (accessed July 21,2008)

 

Table 5. Deadliest Tropical Cyclones in the Philippines
1947-2006

        NAME   PERIOD OF OCCURRENCE  DEATHS
     
  1.   URING (Thelma)A   November 2-7, 1991 5,101 (8,000+)*
  2.   NITANG (Ike)   August 31–September 4, 1984 1,363 (3,000)*
  3.   TRIX   October 16-23, 1952 995
  4.   AMY   December 6-19, 1951 991
  5.   SISANG (Nina)   November 23-27, 1987 979
  6.   ROSING (Angela)   October 30 – November 4, 1995 936
  7.   UNDANG (Agnes)    November 3-6, 1984 895
  8.   SENING (Joan)   October 11-15, 1970 768
  9.   REMING (Durian)B   November 26–December 1, 2006 754 (1,200)*
  10. RUPING (Mike)   November 10-14, 1990 748
  11. TITANG (Kate)   October 16-23, 1970 631
  12. YOLING (Patsy)   November 17-20, 1970 611
  13. KADIANG (Flo)   September 30 - October 7, 1993 576
  14. KADING (Rita)    October 25-27, 1978 444
  15. ANDING (Irma)   November 21-27, 1981 409
  16. WINNIE C   November 28–30, 2004 407
  17. INING (Louise)   November 15-20, 1964 400
  18. DIDANG (Olga)   May 12-17, 1976 374
  19. MONANG (Lola)    December 2-7, 1993 363
  20. WELING (Nancy)    October 11-15, 1982 309
     

Notes:

A - only a Tropical Storm . The unusual high number of deaths was attributed to massive flash floods that swept across parts of Leyte and Negros Occidental. Majority of deaths occurred in the city of Ormoc, Leyte after being overwhelmed a ten feet flashflood in the mid-morning of November 5, 1991, spawned by a continuous, torrential rainfall occurring for a 10-12 hour period (about 140 mm in 6 hours).

B - rains from four earlier typhoons and the southwest monsoon has saturated the loose volcanic material at the slopes of Mayon Volcano from its eruptions since 2001. Heavy downpour from Reming (Durian) further mobilized the volcanic material and spread to wide areas along the slopes of the volcano, reprising the deadly lahars of the Feb.1, 1814 volcanic eruption that buried the famous Cagsawa Church in Albay killing 1,200.

C - a Tropical Depression only as categorized by PAGASA and Japan Meteorological Agency. The towns of Real, Infanta and Gen.Nakar in Quezon and Dingalan in Aurora were swamped by series of log-laden flash floods and landslides after two weeks of continuous rainfall brought by a typhoon and tropical storm that came after one another. These towns occupy the narrow coastline at the foot of the Sierra Madre mountain range that provided them no escape from the deluge but the stormy sea.

* Italicized numbers in parenthesis are UNOFFICIAL death tolls from various agencies other than NDCC where missing persons are included as fatalities.

This summary is taken from NDCC publications, and historical archives.  

Compiled by Dominic Alojado with additional information by David Michael V. Padua of Typhoon2000.com.

Source: http://www.typhoon2000.ph/stats/DeadliestPhilippineTyphoons.htm (accessed July 23, 2008)

 

Figure 4. Deadliest Tropical Cyclones in the Philippines by Month
1947-2006

Source: http://www.typhoon2000.ph/stats/DeadliestPhilippineTyphoons.htm
(accessed July 23, 2008)

 

Figure 5. Directional Pattern of Typhoon Miding (Wayne)

Source: http://www.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/cab/erratic.htm (accessed July 21,2008)

 

Table 6. Annual Frequency of Tropical Cyclones in the Philippine Area of Responsibility

Year Number of Tropical Cyclone Ratio (Landed/Total) Rank
Total Landed/Crossed
         
1948 20 11 0.5500 25
1949 22 9 0.4091 16
1950 15 5 0.3333 48
1951 13 8 0.6154 56
1952 27 16 0.5926 3
1953 18 10 0.5556 35
1954 18 9 0.5000 35
1955 15 4 0.2667 48
1956 25 12 0.4800 5
1957 15 9 0.6000 48
1958 17 4 0.2353 38
1959 19 7 0.3684 30
1960 19 8 0.4211 30
1961 23 8 0.3478 10
1962 21 7 0.3333 19
1963 16 6 0.3750 44
1964 31 15 0.4839 2
1965 21 7 0.3333 19
1966 23 13 0.5652 10
1967 21 9 0.4286 19
1968 15 6 0.4000 48
1969 15 5 0.3333 48
1970 21 13 0.6190 19
1971 27 16 0.5926 3
1972 17 6 0.3529 38
1973 12 9 0.7500 59
1974 23 13 0.5652 10
1975 15 6 0.4000 48
1976 22 5 0.2273 16
1977 19 10 0.5263 30
1978 25 10 0.4000 5
1979 22 13 0.5909 16
1980 23 16 0.6957 10
1981 23 8 0.3478 10
1982 21 9 0.4286 19
1983 23 10 0.4348 10
1984 20 8 0.4000 25
1985 17 8 0.4706 38
1986 21 11 0.5238 19
1987 16 7 0.4375 44
1988 20 9 0.4500 25
1989 19 9 0.4737 30
1990 20 6 0.3000 25
1991 19 11 0.5789 30
1992 15 4 0.2667 48
1993 32 19 0.5938 1
1994 25 9 0.3600 5
1995 16 10 0.6250 44
1996 17 10 0.5882 38
1997 14 4 0.2857 55
1998 11 6 0.5455 60
1999 16 7 0.4375 44
2000 18 10 0.5556 35
2001 17 10 0.5882 38
2002 13 6 0.4615 56
2003 25 12 0.4800 5
2004 25 10 0.4000 5
2005 17 7 0.4118 38
2006 20 9 0.4500 25
2007 13 4 0.3077 56
         
Average 19 9 0.4606  

Source: PAGASA and www.typhoon2000.com

 

Table 7. Strongest Tropical Cyclones in the Philippines
1947-2006

       NAME PERIOD OF OCCURRENCE  HIGHEST WIND SPEED RECORDED  PLACE OBSERVED 
       
1.   REMING (Durian) November 26-December 1, 2006 320 kph Virac
2.   SENING (Joan) October 11-15, 1970 275 kph Virac
3.   ROSING (Angela) October 30-November 4, 1995 260 kph Virac Radar
4.   ANDING (Irma) November 21-27, 1981 260 kph Daet
5.   LOLENG (Babs) October 15-24, 1998 250 kph Virac
6.   AMY December 6-19, 1951 240 kph Cebu
7.   SISANG (Nina) November 23-27, 1987 240 kph Legazpi
8.   SALING (Dot) October 15-20, 1985 240 kph Daet
9.   HERMING (Betty)  August 7-14, 1987 240 kph Catarman 
10. INING (Louise) November 15-20, 1964 240 kph Cebu
11. UNDANG(Agnes) November 3-6, 1984 230 kph Tacloban
12. HARRIET December 28, 1959-January 2, 1960 225 kph Virac
13. NITANG (Ike) August 31-September 4, 1984 220 kph Surigao
15. GADING (Peggy)  July 6-10, 1986 220 kph Vigan
14. RUPING (Mike) November 10-14, 1990 220 kph Cebu
16. TRIX October 16-23, 1952 215 kph Legazpi
17. UNSANG (Ruby) October 21-26, 1988 215 kph Virac
18. GILDA  December 13-22, 1959 212 kph Catbalogan
19. ARING (Betty)  November 2-7, 1980 210 kph Casiguran
20. TRINING (Ruth)  October 16-31, 1991 204 kph Laoag
       

> Data are taken from PAGASA summaries.

Compiled by Dominic Alojado with additional information by David Michael V. Padua of Typhoon2000.com

Source: http://www.typhoon2000.ph/stats/StrongestPhilippineTyphoons.htm (accessed July 22, 2008)

 

Figure 6. Strongest Tropical Cyclones in the Philippines by Highest Wind Speed Recorded
1947-2006

Source: http://www.typhoon2000.ph/stats/StrongestPhilippineTyphoons.htm
(accessed July 22, 2008)

 

Table 8. Amount of Rainfall by Month and By Selected Station
1993 to 2003
(In millimeter)

Sampling Station Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Average Rank
Laoag  City, Ilocos Norte
Normals (1971-2000) 6.6 1.7 3.1 21.5 164.4 275.7 411.4 556.6 377.9 143.6 30.4 5.0 166.5
1993     2.7   83.8 76.3 332.3 393.0 443.4 124.5 10.4 8.2 163.8 8
1994 3.7 18.0   48.4 262.3 291.3 943.8 727.3 604.4 101.3   0.0 300.1 1
1995 0.0     0.0 156.5 261.5 409.3 695.7 295.3 52.6 9.0 6.5 188.6 5
1996 12.2 3.2 0.0 20.2 101.4 99.6 883.8 617.6 488.4 169.1 205.3 0.0 216.7 3
1997 10.2 0.0 0.0   230.6 172.0 266.8 576.4 66.3 56.9 19.1 1.2 127.2 10
1998 60.0 0.0 4.6 26.4 321.0 74.5 154.0 201.0 389.4 260.3 26.5 4.9 126.9 11
1999   0.0 23.2 31.0 55.5 418.6 225.5 425.9 645.5 211.2 6.3 9.1 186.5 6
2000 0.0 0.0 34.5 6.6 341.2 156.5 848.4 513.8 371.2 192.2 17.2 12.3 207.8 4
2001 0.0 22.5 51.0   325.9 553.5 806.3 276.2 1029.9 3.7 10.4 2.4 280.2 2
2002 0.0 12.8 12.9 0.0 505.6 348.1 800.5 117.2 197.0 38.7 12.6   185.9 7
2003 p 8.9 0.0 0.0 7.6 301.7 626.4 137.7 544.1 213.2 39.7 56.8 0.0 161.3 9
Average 10.6 6.3 14.3 17.5 244.1 279.8 528.0 462.6 431.3 113.7 37.4 4.5 195.0
Rank 10 11 9 8 5 4 1 2 3 6 7 12
Dagupan City,  Pangasinan
Normals (1971-2000) 8.0 6.1 17.6 52.8 204.4 331.8 535.8 608.6 362.2 200.6 53.4 10.4 199.3
1993 0.0 4.4 6.4 81.6 52.7 392.9 309.0 264.9 376.7 353.5 86.3 7.5 161.3 10
1994 15.1 13.4 1.0 25.2 130.9 202.1 908.8 203.2 326.6 72.0   2.0 172.8 9
1995 0.0 0.0 0.6 4.0 246.5 216.0 512.6 395.0 328.3 82.1 30.0 24.9 153.3 11
1996 7.2 0.0 3.4 51.3 141.0 95.7 683.5 538.9 442.7 130.8 103.8 0.0 183.2 8
1997 6.0   11.6 91.5 371.6 230.8 333.1 842.4 333.3 83.3 8.6 0.0 210.2 6
1998   0.0 0.0 197.0 175.2 83.4 111.7 188.3 1063.1 515.5 105.8 40.0 225.5 5
1999 0.0   80.4 58.9 150.3 418.3 472.9 1070.7 271.7 349.1 50.9 14.7 267.1 3
2000 1.0 38.8 77.4 39.3 318.1 211.0 1191.7 648.9 321.5 519.5 17.0 44.7 285.7 1
2001   36.5 131.1 94.6 106.5 383.6 605.7 328.6 328.2 21.2 4.8 1.3 185.6 7
2002   21.1 0.0 5.2 310.6 221.3 1289.2 216.9 329.3 266.6 14.7 51.6 247.9 4
2003 p 0.4 0.0 15.4 13.2 939.3 534.0 297.7 1030.2 391.1 139.0 47.0 0.0 283.9 2
Average 3.7 12.7 29.8 60.2 267.5 271.7 610.5 520.7 410.2 230.2 46.9 17.0 216.0
Rank 12 11 9 7 5 4 1 2 3 6 8 10
Port Area (MCO), Manila
Normals (1971-2000) 19.0 7.9 11.1 21.4 165.2 265.0 419.6 486.1 330.3 270.9 129.3 75.4 183.4
1993   0.2 1.0 0.5 7.0 219.2 217.3 437.6 284.2 249.4 206.2 146.0 160.8 9
1994 41.2 1.6 12.0 22.4 168.7 241.8 761.7 367.8 276.4 80.7 44.7 96.3 176.3 6
1995 3.4 23.0 6.8 4.0 110.8 225.8 342.1 538.2 493.6 335.5 264.7 142.7 207.6 5
1996 6.6   4.9 30.6 172.7 156.2 413.7 257.5 483.8 54.0 150.1 12.0 158.4 10
1997 10.4 24.0   20.4 520.9 240.0 438.7 679.8 184.7 121.4 24.4 32.9 208.9 4
1998 6.4 0.0 14.4 2.8 126.7 120.6 167.2 195.7 704.9 356.9 84.1 315.9 174.6 7
1999 18.0 11.0 46.0 125.9 98.5 327.9 477.4 654.8 383.6 308.3 106.7 182.4 228.4 2
2000 25.5 48.4 23.5 49.6 513.8 213.0 893.1 340.3 443.2 499.9 242.0 155.8 287.3 1
2001 34.0 54.5 26.3 39.0 174.2 182.1 388.6 465.4 121.4 183.4 74.6 88.7 152.7 11
2002 7.5 11.3 7.8 15.4 71.2 37.4 1468.8 363.3 277.7 212.4 140.1 29.3 220.2 3
2003 p 8.5 8.3 1.2 18.4 408.1 232.1 333.5 425.3 366.7 114.1 129.6 11.4 171.4 8
Average 16.2 18.2 14.4 29.9 215.7 199.6 536.6 429.6 365.5 228.7 133.4 110.3 195.1
Rank 11 10 12 9 5 6 1 2 3 4 7 8
Legaspi City, Albay
Normals (1971-2000) 321.9 209.7 185.0 161.0 170.5 259.5 279.0 236.1 261.6 353.8 486.3 562.5 290.6
1993 161.1 112.2 150.5 35.9 119.4 216.9 393.5 375.4 293.7 366.7 702.0 847.6 314.6 5
1994 590.4 76.0 169.0 277.7 134.2 195.7 377.2 65.1 253.8 170.5 127.9 464.2 241.8 9
1995 274.5 92.6 45.2 113.4 136.6 197.8 348.0 372.0 392.9 261.1 843.5 1649.4 393.9 1
1996 461.5 158.9 569.8 590.7 149.1 323.6 206.9 124.8 153.1 284.7 546.1 356.5 327.1 4
1997 85.1 250.1 93.3 15.4 163.4 192.0 354.1 120.8 333.5 126.3 285.9 404.5 202.0 10
1998 161.6 16.9 118.6 78.5 246.3 62.2 184.6 260.6 278.9 555.5 305.5 895.9 263.8 7
1999 869.5 322.6 426.0 197.2 151.9 191.4 155.4 239.1 113.3 351.1 547.3 774.8 361.6 3
2000 365.0 847.4 481.6 263.7 106.7 170.5 221.0 184.4 210.2 466.1 623.6 757.8 391.5 2
2001 325.5 472.8 285.0 103.6 144.0 235.9 214.1 282.0 247.4 485.5 446.6 505.0 312.3 6
2002 261.7 203.0 129.0 112.1 147.5 70.4 363.5 243.4 306.2 181.0 467.5 514.2 250.0 8
2003 p 216.0 95.3 124.5 105.3 195.9 281.5 191.3 159.4 267.9 256.3 276.8 198.9 197.4 11
Average 342.9 240.7 235.7 172.1 154.1 194.4 273.6 220.6 259.2 318.6 470.2 669.9 296.0
Rank 3 7 8 11 12 10 5 9 6 4 2 1
Iloilo City,  Iloilo
Normals (1971-2000) 39.5 30.3 41.2 70.1 113.5 308.0 347.6 388.6 296.2 283.2 171.9 104.0 182.8
1993 17.6 5.5 49.9 47.4 26.0 175.5 287.3 540.1 120.7 319.6 133.1 320.1 170.2 7
1994 40.8 56.1 34.8 226.4 348.2 465.1 972.9 232.1 293.1 218.8 40.0 131.8 255.0 1
1995 36.6 10.4 5.3 12.6 36.2 320.4 345.6 314.3 743.4 441.3 150.4 119.6 211.3 3
1996 75.1 65.1 250.5 279.5 137.3 274.8 224.8 180.8 376.8 243.9 350.3 85.7 212.1 2
1997 6.1 53.3 16.3 25.2 199.4 286.9 481.0 265.9 90.2 113.3 34.1 22.1 132.8 11
1998 2.3 4.0 4.5 2.0 227.9 179.3 211.6 131.6 295.1 274.3 131.2 240.2 142.0 10
1999 117.3 60.5 85.2 124.0 121.5 289.2 367.7 407.2 275.7 213.9 142.0 132.0 194.7 5
2000 11.9 67.5 83.3 75.0 153.0 183.6 324.4 387.4 226.1 280.3 157.6 281.2 185.9 6
2001 46.4 122.3 111.7 113.8 168.8 219.1 205.5 489.5 110.0 265.5 319.0 185.3 196.4 4
2002 13.2 2.6 39.6 4.8 60.0 179.4 597.1 452.3 222.5 127.2 55.7 15.4 147.5 9
2003 p 49.1 11.8   55.6 302.5 109.9 382.8 319.2 170.2 178.7 90.2 47.9 156.2 8
Average 37.9 41.7 68.1 87.8 161.9 243.9 400.1 338.2 265.8 243.3 145.8 143.8 182.2
Rank 12 11 10 9 6 4 1 2 3 5 7 8
Mactan International Airport
Normals (1971-2000) 108.9 77.8 56.7 48.9 78.8 183.4 181.3 144.7 172.0 182.2 155.0 133.2 126.9
1993 133.7 99.1 99.3 4.2   124.1 176.5 196.6 99.5 203.1 197.0 328.8 151.1 6
1994 204.8 43.3 98.7 251.7 134.4 315.8 142.1 156.0 172.9 173.3 56.0 113.3 155.2 5
1995 53.8 9.3 179.2 26.5 24.4 175.8 154.2 121.8 317.0 336.7 92.8 173.8 138.8 8
1996 179.2 154.2 26.2 63.9 68.1 307.8 39.4 206.2 117.9 189.9 228.4 134.9 143.0 7
1997 29.8 151.7 38.2 55.4 41.1 197.6 339.9 119.1 168.4 149.3 35.6 31.4 113.1 9
1998 71.9 12.7 3.4 1.0 12.6 100.1 125.5 44.3 205.7 220.6 166.0 145.1 92.4 11
1999 304.3 119.4 85.4 220.9 182.6 102.5 136.7 191.9 162.3 128.9 173.9 252.0 171.7 2
2000 65.0 225.2 145.0 24.8 239.7 237.8 178.6 121.2 99.4 193.5 306.1 151.2 165.6 4
2001 76.8 67.6 55.6 54.1 182.3 178.3 152.3 154.1 301.7 233.2 339.6 330.0 177.1 1
2002 40.5 30.8 83.3 9.8 16.4 143.5 133.3 112.8 228.0 226.7 63.1 56.3 95.4 10
2003 p 113.6 92.6 6.1 2.6 45.5 82.1 381.7 130.3 366.9 255.8 94.2 423.5 166.2 3
Average 115.8 91.4 74.6 65.0 94.7 178.7 178.2 141.3 203.6 210.1 159.3 194.6 142.7
Rank 8 10 11 12 9 4 5 7 2 1 6 3
Zamboanga City,  Zamboanga
Normals (1971-2000) 43.6 54.1 44.4 56.6 80.2 134.9 154.8 131.1 144.3 188.8 120.8 62.2 101.3
1993 2.8 55.4 6.2 41.2 75.9 139.6 136.5 90.0 29.0 249.4 67.3 43.1 78.0 10
1994 37.1 64.4 98.2 106.3 91.5 162.3 135.9 318.7 350.2 44.9 57.6 66.4 127.8 3
1995 19.3 23.6 52.8 51.1 3.0 149.1 131.5 60.6 293.9 113.2 191.2 141.7 102.6 7
1996 163.2 23.6 62.4 124.8 70.4 174.2 86.4 151.9 187.7 119.5 257.6 102.2 127.0 4
1997 2.6 113.9 11.4 7.6 47.1 36.6 176.4 17.9 87.1 54.2 33.4 88.9 56.4 11
1998 2.8 35.6 1.0 13.4 ... 146.9 128.3 77.5 96.9 311.6 318.4 104.8 112.5 6
1999 191.2 61.9 234.7 154.1 116.8 133.5 172.8 458.9 126.9 216.8 135.2 146.0 179.1 1
2000 100.0 94.9 128.7 152.3 40.4 85.2 150.1 171.6 48.5 133.4 77.5 27.8 100.9 8
2001 84.5 7.4 143.9 173.0 72.4 97.4 89.1 272.0 9.2 242.0 287.1 177.8 138.0 2
2002 38.5 45.8 11.9 30.2 56.1 273.4 86.6 217.2 96.6 39.3 34.3 52.6 81.9 9
2003 p 0.6 11.2 91.8 7.6 124.5 186.7 359.4 93.4 244.8 284.0 5.8 72.9 123.6 5
Average 58.4 48.9 76.6 78.3 69.8 144.1 150.3 175.4 142.8 164.4 133.2 93.1 111.6
Rank 11 12 9 8 10 4 3 1 5 2 6 7
Davao City,  Davao Del Sur
Normals (1971-2000) 124.8 99.9 92.3 141.1 176.5 207.7 148.1 181.0 184.3 178.3 135.3 103.5 147.7
1993 103.0 118.4 95.9 234.0 91.3 92.8 296.3 120.4 390.8 58.5 72.3 179.4 154.4 4
1994 53.7 77.6 101.8 244.7 234.4 353.1 58.0 383.6 111.4 148.5 59.4 79.0 158.8 3
1995 99.4 185.3 119.1 73.0 167.3 108.8 184.3 236.8 194.1 124.0 137.5 207.2 153.1 5
1996 215.4 109.7 41.3 46.0 130.1 159.8 139.8 105.3 102.8 183.2 224.4 47.6 125.5 9
1997 303.4 156.9 119.1 133.8 170.7 60.0 100.6 45.4 170.3 449.3 31.8 71.8 151.1 6
1998 43.4 24.7 7.1 30.6 220.4 149.3 144.5 94.1 229.8 206.2 169.3 86.8 117.2 11
1999 307.1 135.4 290.5 173.6 220.2 177.5 115.1 157.8 214.8 89.8 104.0 257.1 186.9 2
2000 337.0 303.9 231.5 98.8 94.4 188.4 175.0 257.2 58.6 279.8 199.1 133.8 196.5 1
2001 98.0 76.2 113.7 61.1 67.9 112.9 226.5 152.4 161.2 99.1 193.1 85.8 120.7 10
2002 127.9 160.6 38.8 40.8 107.5 357.7 51.1 204.8 185.3 129.5 202.5 30.8 136.4 8
2003 p 108.4 176.3 120.5 115.5 144.9 141.2 192.9 144.3 52.3 211.9 149.0 202.1 146.6 7
Average 163.3 138.6 116.3 113.8 149.9 172.9 153.1 172.9 170.1 180.0 140.2 125.6 149.7  
Rank 5 9 11 12 7 3 6 2 4 1 8 10
                               

Notes:

1. Normals refer to the period averages for a uniform and relative long period comprising at least 3 consecutive 10-year periods.

2. means trace.

Source: Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical, and Astronomical Services Administration.

 

Figure 7. Average Amount of Rainfall by Selected Station
1993 to 2003

Source: Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical, and Astronomical Services Administration.

 

 

 

 

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Please cite this article as:

Virola, Romulo. (August 11, 2008). "Statistically Speaking... Some Things You Better Know About Typhoons in the Philippines!" Retrieved (date of access), from
http://www.nscb.gov.ph/
headlines/statsspeak/2008/
081408_rav_typhoons.asp

 

             
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