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How Important is Agriculture in the Economy?                 Filipino Version
by Jose Ramon G. Albert, Ph.D.1

How Important is Agriculture in the Economy?Agriculture is a crucial sector for reducing poverty and attaining the Millenuim Development Goals (MDG’s), which includes halving the proportion of people in extreme poverty and hunger by 2015 (from its level in 1990). While the economy is growing, there may be a need to examine the agriculture sector more carefully, since official poverty statistics (dating as far back as 1985 up to the most recently released figures in 2009) show that the concentration of the poor has been in the entire agriculture sector. Many resources have been devoted by past administrations to agricultural modernization, the provision of agricultural inputs, and agrarian reform, but the Philippines continues to face a lot of challenges particularly to uplift the farmers out of poverty. How important is agriculture in the economy?

Several decades ago, the country’s economy and employment have been dependent on agriculture. In recent years, however, the population has become less dependent on farming. In terms of share to the total economy, the agriculture sector’s importance has continuously dropped over the past decades. In 1946, about a third of the economy (29.7 percent) was agricultural, but the share of agriculture to the economy has declined over the years.In 2012, it is now contributing merely 11.1 percent to the economy. (Table 1 and Figure 1)

Statistics always become interesting when they are compared across time and across space. Consider economic statistics across regions of the country. Based on the 2011 Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP), Central Luzon (Region III) and CALABARZON (Region IVA) are the top two contributors to the agricultural sector at 13.8 percent and 9.5 percent, respectively.Comparing the share of agriculture in the total economies across all the regions, it can be observed that the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) has the largest share of Agriculture industry to its economy with 63.0 percent.(Figure 2) It is interesting to note that ARMMhas consistently been on record as having one of the highest poverty incidences among all the regions (at 45.9 percent in 2009) in the country. (Table 2)

Examining employment figures, we find that the average share of agricultural employment for the past two decades to the total labor force is about one-third or 36.6 percent. In 2010, 31.2 percent of the total labor force are working in agriculture.When the total employment figures in the agriculture sector are broken down by region, Western Visayas and Cagayan Valley have the most number of employed persons in agriculture while the least are in Metro Manila and CARAGA. (Table 3.4)

According to the Bureau of Labor and Employment Statistics (BLES), the Labor Force Survey (LFS) conducted by the National Statistics Office (NSO), indicates that agriculture receives the lowest average daily basic wage and salary compared to non-agriculture sectors. Farmers and fishermen are among the least paid workers in the Philippine economy with an average daily wage and salary of Php 156.8 and Php 178.43, respectively in 2011. It was also noted that wage and salary received by those in agriculture are comparable to those of private households with employed persons (i.e., domestic helpers) at Php 138.99. (Table 4)

In 2012, the labor productivity, as measured by the ratio of Gross Value Added (GVA) to total number of employed persons, the entire agriculture sector posted the lowest productivity rate with Php 57,728. The Industry and Service sectors, likewise, have higher productivity with Php 351,024 and Php181,850, respectively. (Table 5)

Given the low labor productivity and wage rates, it is not surprising that across basic sectors, poverty incidence is highest among fishermen and farmers at 41.4 percent and 36.7 percent in 2009, way above the poverty incidence for the whole country at 26.5 percent in 2009.Among regions, Zamboanga Peninsula has the highest poverty incidence of farmers (at 54.0 percent), while CARAGA has the highest poverty incidence (of 59.2 percent) among fisherfolk. (Table 6, 7.1 and 7.2)

With all these figures, it is also not surprising to find that that the bulk of working children aged 5-17 years are employed in the entire agriculture sector (estimated at 56.6 percent in 2011). The most number of children working in Agriculture are found in Northern Mindanao, which in 2009, is a region with one of the highest poverty incidences for farmers (at 52.3 percent).Eastern Visayas has the most number of children working in the fishing industry at 14.5 percent. (Table 7.1 and 8)

While this profile of the agriculture sector may give more bullets for prophets of doom to point to the lackluster performance in boosting the sector, it is important to recognize that government has a number of policies and programs toward uplifting the lives of the Filipino farmers and fishermen. The budget allocation of the government to the agriculture sector, as indicated in the General Appropriations Act 2012, may seem meager but it has been continuously increasing from a share of 0.5 percent in 2007 to 4.7 percent of the total budget in 2013. (Table 9)

Government has also sought to improve access to agricultural loans through the Agricultural Credit Policy Council (ACPC) Agricultural production loan, a mechanism that helps farmer finance their inputs to the process of production.It can be noted that palay production had the biggest share to total agricultural loans in food commodity with 35.2 percent. (Table 10).

The current administration, through the Department of Budget and Management, has also started to compile its Registry System for Basic Sectors in Agriculture (RSBSA), an electronic compilation of basic information on farmers, farm laborers and fishermen – the target beneficiaries of agriculture-related programs and services. The RSBSA is intended to be used to improve the targeting of subsidies and aid to proper beneficiaries, and likewise serves as an auditing mechanism to ensure that resources are given to those who need them.

The Philippines, like other ASEAN economies, has likewise experienced changing structure of agriculture sector. For instance, the shares of Agriculture to the economy of most countries in the Association of South East Asian (ASEAN) have also been declining, especially in the case Vietnam, which was 40.2 percent agricultural in 1985, with this share reduced to almost half in 2011 (at 22.02 percent). Note that even if the share of agriculture to the economy has been declining, the Gross Value Added of Agriculture in 2011 for ASEAN countries has still been a considerable amount: leading are Indonesia (37,252 million US$), Philippines (15,397 million US$), and Thailand (14,182 million US$). In terms of employment, Thailand has the most number of persons in ASEAN employed in agriculture at 41.5 percent. But employment in agriculture has also declining, especially in Thailand from 70.8 percent in 1980 to only 41.5 percent in 2009. (Tables 11, 12 and 13; Figures 3 and 4)

Unfortunately, many statistics we collect and compile only describe the past, and very often, even when policy interventions are made, the effects take time. Whether the current efforts of government will be successful, only time will truly tell. Many efforts have not yielded fruit, but perhaps, it is time also for everyone to recognize that we can’t leave everything to government. If we wish the agriculture sector to grow in importance, then we all have to do our share in helping farmers, in reducing transportation costs, and reducing the profits of middle-men. This isn’t the sole responsibility of government. Statistics in agriculture will also need to constantly improve to help serve as guideposts for government to recalibrate its actions as need be. But these improvements will require investments. Government must not only need to invest in proper interventions, but also in statistics so that we can improve the performance of the agriculture sector.

Reactions and views are welcome thru email to the author at jrg.albert@nscb.gov.ph.

 

 

Filipino Version

Gaano nga ba kahalaga ang pagsasaka sa Ekonomiya ng Bansa?
Ni Jose Ramon G. Albert, Ph.D.1

Ang Agrikultura o pagsasaka ay isang  mahalagang sektor na dapat pagtuunan ng pansin upang mabawasan ang kahirapan at matamo ang hangarin ng  Millennium Development Goals (MDG’s) na mahati ang bahagdan ng mga taong nagugutom at nabubuhay sa kahirapan (noong taong 1990) pagsapit ng taong 2015. Bagamat lumalago ang ekonomiya ng bansa, kinakailangan pa ring pag-aralang mabuti ang sektor ng pagsasaka lalo na’t lumalabas sa opisyal na datos ng bilang ng mga mahihirap (simula 1985 hanggang 2009), na ang higit na nakararami sa mga mahihirap sa ating bansa ay nabibilang sa sektor ng pagsasaka. Sa kabila ng malaking puhunan na ginastos ng mga nakaraang administrasyon para sa modernisasyon at pagpapa-unlad sa agrikultura, pagkakaloob ng mga kagamitang pang- sakahan at pagpapatupad ng repormang pang-agraryo, patuloy pa rin ang malawakang pagsubok na kinakaharap ng Pilipinas lalo’t higit sa sa hangarin nitong mai-ahon ang mga magsasaka mula sa pagkalugmok sa kahirapan. Gaano nga ba kahalaga ang agrikultura sa pambansang ekonomiya?

Noong mga nakaraang dekada, nakadepende ang ekonomiya at hanapbuhay sa sektor ng pagsasaka. Subalit, nitong mga nakalipas na taon, nabawasan ang pagiging “dependent” natin sa pagsasaka. Kung titignan ang kontribusyon  ng sektor na ito sa kabuoang ekonomiya ng bansa, patuloy itong bumababa sa loob ng nakalipas na dekada. Noong 1946, halos isa sa katlong bahagi (o 29.7%) ng ekonomiya ay nanggagaling sa agrikultura, subalit sa paglipas ng mga panahon, unti-unti itong nababawasan. Noong 2012, halos 11.1% na lamang ang kontribusyon ng agrikultura sa ekonomiya ng bansa (Table 1 at Figure 1)    

Ang estadistika  ay mas lalong nabibigyan ng kahalagahan, kung ihahambing ang mga datos na nakuha sa loob ng iba’t ibang panahon at iba’t ibang lugar. Halimbawa nito ay ang mga estadistikang pang ekonomiya sa lahat ng rehiyon sa ating bansa.   Ayon sa 2011 Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP), ang dalawang rehiyon sa Pilipinas na may malaking kontribusyon sa sektor ng agrikultura ay ang Central Luzon (Region III) at  CALABARZON. Sila ay nagtamo ng 13.8 % at 9.5 %, ayon sa pagkakasunod.

Kung ihahambing naman ang kontribusyon ng agrikultura sa bawat rehiyon sa bansa, makikita sa nasabing datos ng 2011 GRDP na ang Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) ang may pinakamalaking kontribusyon na may  63.0 %.  (Figure 2). Subalit, ang ARMM din ang nasa listahan ng isa sa mga rehiyon sa bansa na may mataas na poverty incidence (45.9 % noong 2009). (Table 2)

Kung pag-aaralan naman ang datos ukol sa hanapbuhay, makikita na sa loob ng dalawang dekada,isa sa bawat tatlong Pilipinong mangagawa  (36%) ay  nabibilang sa sektor ng pagsasaka. Noong 2010, 31.2% sa kabuuang bilang ng mga mangagawa sa bansa ang nagtratrabaho sa sektor ng pagsasaka. Kung ibabahagi ang mga datos na ito sa bawat rehiyon, makikita na ang  Western Visayas at Cagayan Valley ang may pinakamaraming bilang ng mga taong nagtratrabaho sa sektor ng pagsasaka samantalang ang pinakako-konti ay sa  Metro Manila at CARAGA.  (Table 3.4)

Ayon sa Bureau of Labor and Employment Statistics (BLES), makikita sa resulta ng Labor Force Survey (LFS) na isinasagawa ng National Statistics Office  (NSO), na ang sektor ng pagsasaka  ang tumatanggap ng pinakamababang average na pasahod sa isang araw, sa lahat ng mangagawa sa Pilipinas kumpara sa iba pang sektor sa bansa. Noong 2011, ang mga magsasaka at mangingisda ang may pinakamababang arawang sahod na umaabot lamang sa average na Php 156.8 at Php 178.43, ayon sa pagkakasunod. Kapansin pansin din na ang pasahod na tinatanggap ng mga kababayan nating umaasa sa pagsasaka ay halos katumbas lamang ng mga taong nagtratrabaho sa mga pribadong tahanan tulad ng mga kasambahay sa halagang Php 138.99 kada araw. (Table 4)

Kung pag-uusapan ang tinatawag na “labor productivity” (na sinusukat sa pamamagitan ng ratio ng Gross Value Added (GVA) sa kabuoang bilang ng mga taong may trabaho), lumalabas na ang sektor ng pagsasaka ang may pinakamababang labor productivity rate noong 2012, sa halagang Php 57,728. Samantalang di hamak na mas mataas ang productivity sa Industry at Services sectors sa halagang Php 351,024 at Php181,850, ayon sa pagkakasunod. (Table 5)

Dahil sa mababang labor productivity at pasahod, hindi kataka-taka na sa lahat ng sektor, ang mga mangingisda (41.4%) at magsasaka (36.7%) ang may pinakamataas na poverty incidence noong 2009, ito ay kapansin-pansin na mas mataas nang bahagya sa  kabuuang populasyon ng mahirap sa ating bansa (26.5%).  Sa lahat ng rehiyon sa Pilipinas, ang  mga magsasaka sa Zamboanga Peninsula ang may pinakamataas na poverty incidence (54.0%) sa lahat ng magsasaka sa bansa, samantalang ang mga mangingisda sa CARAGA ang may pinakamataas na poverty incidence (59.2%) sa lahat ng mangingisda sa bansa.  (Table 6, 7.1 and 7.2)

Kung pagbabatayan ang mga nabanggit na datos, hindi rin kataka-taka na malaman na noong 2011, ang may pinakamaraming bilang ng mga naghahanapbuhay na bata na may edad 5-17 ay nagtratrabaho sa sektor ng pagsasaka(56.6%). Ang pinakamaraming batang nagtratrabaho sa sektor ng pagsasaka ay matatagpuan sa Northern Mindanao na  sya ring  may pinakamataas (52.3%) na poverty incidence sa hanay ng mga magsasaka noong 2009.  Ang Eastern Visayas naman ang rehiyon na may pinakamaraming batang nagtratrabaho sa industriya ng pangisdaan na may 14.5% (Table 7.1 and 8).

Bagama’t ang mga nasabing datos ay nagpapamalas sa tunay na kalagayan ng sektor ng pagsasaka, (na maaring gamiting bala ng ilang mapanuri upang sabihing hindi maganda ang takbo o kalagayan ng sektor) mahalagang mabatid na sa katunayan, ang gobyerno ay naglaan din ng ilang mga batas at programa na naglalayong maitaas ang antas ng pamumuhay ng mga pilipinong magsasaka at mangingisda sa bansa. Sa unang tingin, masasabi nating kulang ang inilalaang pundo ng gobyerno sa pagsasaka base sa General Appropriations Act 2012, subalit ang proporsyon nito sa kabuoang pundo ng bansa ay patuloy na tumataas mula 0.5% noong 2007 na naging 4.7% nitong taon. (Table 9)

Hinangad din ng gobyerno na mapaunlad ang pagkakaloob ng pautang sa agrikultura sa pamamagitan ng agricultural production loan na pimamahalaan ng Agricultural Credit Policy Council (ACPC). Ito ay isang programang naglalayong matulungan ang mga magsasaka  para magkaroon ng karagdagang puhunan upang tustusan ang kanilang gastos sa paghahanapbuhay. Mapapansin na ang produksyon ng palay ang may pinakamalaking bahagi (35.2 %) sa kabuoang agricultural loans in food commodity. (Table 10

Sinimulan na rin ng kasalukuyang gobyerno sa pamamagitan ng Department of Budget and Management ang pagbuo ng Registry System for Basic Sectors in Agriculture (RSBSA). Ito ay isang uri ng pangangalap ng pangunahing impormasyon gamit ang makabagong teknolohiya ukol sa mga magsasaka, manggagawa sa bukid, at mangingisda, na syang pangunahing benepisyaryo ng mga programa at serbisyo ng gobyerno para sa agrikultura. Nilalayon ng RSBSA na magamit ito upang mapaunlad ang paghahanap ng tamang benepisyaryo at naaayong tulong para sa mga manggagawa sa sektor ng pagsasaka. Isa rin itong uri ng auditing mechanism upang maseguro na ang mga pondong ipinagkakaloob sa ilalim ng nabanggit na programa ay naibibigay sa mga taong higit na nangangailangan nito.

Hindi nag-iisa ang Pilipinas sa mga bansa ng Association of South East Asian Nations (o ASEAN), sa pagkaranas ng pagbabago ng estraktura sa sektor ng pagsasaka. Bilang halimbawa,  bumababa rin ang kontribusyon ng pagsasaka sa ekonomiya ng iba pang bansa sa ASEAN tulad ng Vietnam, na mayroong 40.2 % share noong 1985, at naging 22.02% share na lamang noong 2011,  na halos kalahati ang pagbaba.

Pansinin, na kahit na bumababa ang share ng pagsasaka sa ekonomiya ng mga bansa sa ASEAN, malaki pa rin ang tinatakbo ng Gross Value Added (GVA) sa pagsasaka   noong 2011. Pinangungunahan sa ASEAN ang mga bansang Indonesia (37,252 million US$), Pilipinas (15,397 million US$), at Thailand (14,182 million US$) sa halaga ng GVA sa pagsasaka. Kung hanapbuhay naman ang pag-uusapan, ang bansang Thailand ang may pinakamaraming mamamayan  (41.5%) sa ASEAN na nagtratrabaho sa sektor ng pagsasaka. Sa kabila nito, bumababa rin ang mga taong nagtratrabaho sa sektor na ito lalo na sa Thailand, na noong 1980 ay may 70.8% na bahagi, at ito’y naging 41.5% na lamang noong 2009. (Tables 11, 12 and 13; Figures 3 and 4)

Sa kasawiang palad, marami sa mga estadistikang ito na aming nakokolekta at nakukuha sa mga iba’t ibang pamamaraan, ay nagbibigay larawan lamang sa mga pangyayari ng nakalipas. At sa kabila ng mga isinasagawang programa ng gobyerno, dapat nating tandaan na lilipas pa ang ilang panahon bago makita ang positibong epekto ng mga programang ito. Kung tunay na magtatagumpay ang kasalukuyang hakbangin ng gobyerno, panahon lamang ang tunay na makapagsasabi. Sabi nga, marami pa tayong kakaining bigas, subalit panahon na para lahat tayo’y magbuklod para tulungan ang sector ng Agrikultura. Hindi puwedeng iasa lang natin sa gobyerno ang lahat ng bagay. Kung nais nating magtagumpay ang sektor ng pagsasaka, kailangan nating kumilos at makibahagi sa pagtulong sa mga magsasaka tulad ng pagbabawas sa kanilang gastusin sa transportasyon, pagbabawas sa kita ng mga middle-men o negosyanateng sa kanila ay nakikinabang nang husto. Hindi lamang ito tungkulin ng gobyerno. Ang mga estadistika sa pagsasaka ay kinakailangan ding patuloy na mapagbuti upang makatulong bilang gabay ng gobyerno sa pagpapatupad ng kanilang mga nararapat na tungkulin. Subalit, ang mga ganitong hakbangin ay may kaukulang gastusin. Nararapat lamang na ang pamahalaan ay hindi lamang mamuhunan sa tamang pagpapatupad ng mga hakbanging pangkaunalaran, kundi mamuhunan din maging sa estadistika upang mapaunlad ang sektor ng pagsasaka sa bansa. 

Kung kayo ay may reaksyon o ibang pananaw ukol sa artikulong ito, mangyari lamang na sumulat sa may akda sa email address na: jrg.albert@nscb.gov.ph.

________________________________

1 Secretary General of the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB). The NSCB, a statistical agency functionally attached to the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), is the highest policy making and coordinating body on statistical matters in the Philippines. Immediately prior to his appointment at NSCB, Dr. Albert was a Senior Research Fellow at the Philippine Institute for Development Studies, a policy think tank attached to NEDA. Dr. Albert finished summa cum laude with a Bachelor of Science degree in Applied Mathematics from the De La Salle University in 1988. He completed a Master of Science in Statistics from the State University of New York at Stony Brook in 1989 and a Ph.D. in Statistics from the same university in 1993. He is an Adjunct Faculty of the Asian Institute of Management. He is also a past President of the Philippine Statistical Association, a Fellow of the Social Weather Stations, and an Elected Regular Member of the National Research Council of the Philippines.

This article was co-written by Maria Fe Talento and Mai Lin Villaruel, Statistical Coordination Officer VI and Statistical Coordination Officer III, respectively of the NSCB. This article was translated in Filipino by Ruben V. Litan of NSCB. The authors thank Vivian Ilarina, Irene T. Talam, Priscille C. Villanueva, Simonette Nisperos and Noel S. Nepomuceno of the NSCB, respectively, for the assistance in the preparation of the article. The views expressed in the article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the NSCB and its Technical Staff.



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Table 1.Gross Domestic Product by Industrial Origin: Percent distribution
1946-2012
AT CONSTANT 2000 PRICES

Industry 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
1. Agriculture, Hunting, Forestry and Fishing 29.7 27.8 24.9 25.0 24.9 24.3 23.8 23.9 24.8 23.6 22.3 21.7 21.9 21.8 21.3 21.5 21.5 21.5 20.8 21.2 21.1 20.5 20.8 20.6 19.9 19.6 19.6 19.4 18.0 17.3 17.5 17.3 17.0 16.6 16.4 16.4 15.9 15.0 16.1 17.1 17.1 16.9 16.3 15.8 15.4 15.7 15.7 15.7 15.4 14.8 14.5 14.2 13.3 14.1 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 13.6 13.3 13.1 12.9 12.8 12.5 11.6 11.5 11.1
2. Industry Sector 22.6 28.1 33.0 30.6 30.5 31.9 30.3 31.0 29.9 30.4 32.5 33.0 32.9 33.4 32.7 32.7 32.4 33.2 33.5 33.6 33.8 34.6 34.5 34.5 35.0 35.6 36.2 37.6 38.5 39.5 40.4 41.0 41.1 41.7 41.6 42.1 41.5 41.1 39.4 35.9 35.5 35.3 35.9 36.2 35.9 35.2 34.9 34.7 35.1 35.7 35.8 36.1 35.3 33.8 34.5 33.8 33.6 33.3 32.9 32.7 32.5 32.2 32.4 31.5 32.6 32.1 32.1
3. Service Sector 47.7 44.1 42.0 44.4 44.6 43.8 45.9 45.0 45.3 46.0 45.2 45.3 45.2 44.9 46.0 45.8 46.1 45.3 45.8 45.2 45.1 44.9 44.7 44.9 45.1 44.8 44.2 43.0 43.5 43.3 42.2 41.7 41.9 41.7 42.0 41.5 42.6 43.9 44.5 47.0 47.4 47.7 47.8 48.0 48.7 49.1 49.5 49.6 49.5 49.5 49.7 49.7 51.4 52.1 51.6 52.1 52.4 52.7 53.5 54.0 54.4 54.9 54.8 56.0 55.8 56.4 56.9
Gross Domestic Product 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Source: National Statistical Coordination Board

 

 

Table 2.Gross Value Added in Agriculture, Hunting, Forestry and Fishing
and Poverty Incidence,
2009 TO 2011
AT CONSTANT 2000 PRICES
PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

REGION / YEAR 2009 2010 2011 Poverty Incidence (%)
PHILIPPINES 100.0 100.0 100.0 26.5
NCR METRO MANILA 1.7 1.7 1.6 4.0
CAR CORDILLERA 2.0 1.9 1.9 22.9
I ILOCOS 6.5 6.8 6.8 23.3
II CAGAYAN VALLEY 6.2 5.6 6.1 18.8
III CENTRAL LUZON 13.9 14.4 13.8 15.3
IVA CALABARZON 9.4 9.6 9.5 13.9
IVB MIMAROPA 4.4 4.3 4.3 35.0
V BICOL 4.4 4.6 4.5 45.1
VI WESTERN VISAYAS 9.0 8.4 9.3 31.2
VII CENTRAL VISAYAS 4.1 4.1 4.2 35.5
VIII EASTERN VISAYAS 4.7 4.7 4.6 41.4
IX ZAMBOANGA PENINSULA 5.2 5.3 4.9 43.1
X NORTHERN MINDANAO 8.4 8.7 8.9 39.6
XI DAVAO REGION 6.3 6.3 6.2 31.3
XII SOCCSKSARGEN 7.2 7.0 7.0 35.7
XIII CARAGA 2.4 2.2 2.2 47.8
ARMM MUSLIM MINDANAO 4.3 4.4 4.2 45.9

Source: National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB)

 

 

Table 3.1 Total Employment by Industry and Total Labor Force
2000-2010
(numbers in thousands)

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Total Labor Force 30,908 33,354 33,674 35,120 35,629 35,494 35,806 35,919 37,058 38,196 39,289
Total Employed 27,775 30,085 30,251 31,553 31,741 32,875 33,185 33,671 34,533 35,478 36,489
Agriculture 10,401 11,253 11,311 11,741 11,785 12,171 12,164 16,364 12,328 12,062 12,260
Industry 4,444 4,682 4,669 4,948 4,880 4,883 4,895 4,849 5,076 5,144 5,364
Services 12,929 14,151 14,271 14,865 15,076 15,820 16,126 12,458 17,128 18,271 18,865

Source: Labour Force Survey, National Statistics Office

 

 

Table 3.2 Contribution of Employment by Industry ( as the percentage employed of the total labour force)
2000-2010

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Total Labor Force 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Total Employed 89.9 90.2 89.8 89.8 89.1 92.6 92.7 93.7 93.2 92.9 92.9
Agriculture 33.7 33.7 33.6 33.4 33.1 34.3 34.0 45.6 33.3 31.6 31.2
Industry 14.4 14.0 13.9 14.1 13.7 13.8 13.7 13.5 13.7 13.5 13.7
Services 41.8 42.4 42.4 42.3 42.3 44.6 45.0 34.7 46.2 47.8 48.0

Source: Labour Force Survey, National Statistics Office

 

 

Table 3.3 Contribution of Agriculture Employment (As percentage employed
of the Total Labor Force)
Five-Year and Twenty Years Average
1990 TO 2010

Average
1990-1995 1996-2000 2001-2005 2006-2010 1990-2010
Total Labor Force 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Agriculture 41.2 35.2 33.7 35.1 36.6
Industry 14.3 14.9 13.9 13.6 14.2
Services 35.9 40.8 43.2 44.4 40.7

Source: Labour Force Survey, National Statistics Office

 

 

Table 3.4 - Employed Persons in Agriculture by Region
(Based on Past Week Reference Period; In Thousands)

REGION AND MAJOR INDUSTRY GROUP 2009 2010 2011 Rank1/
PHILIPPINES 10,582 10,488 10,803
Metro Manila 16 12 15 17
CAR (Cordillera Administrative Region) 366 373 364 15
Region I (Ilocos Region) 672 687 683 9
Region II (Cagayan Valley) 821 787 840 2
Region III (Central Luzon) 740 748 768 6
Region IV-A (CALABARZON) 629 614 608 12
Region IV-B (MIMAROPA) 514 514 541 14
Region V (Bicol Region) 744 711 722 7
Region VI (Western Visayas) 981 985 1,051 1
Region VII (Central Visayas) 730 730 781 3
Region VIII (Eastern Visayas) 621 604 620 10
Region IX (Zamboanga Peninsula) 602 617 601 13
Region X (Northern Mindanao) 745 748 780 4
Region XI (Davao Region) 655 633 695 8
Region XII (SOCCSKSARGEN) 762 761 774 5
Region XIII (Caraga) 364 344 346 16
ARMM (Autonomous Reg. of Muslim Mind.) 620 620 613 11

Source of basic data: National Statistics Office, Labor Force Survey.
Source from Bureau of Labor and Employment Statistics
1/ Rank 1 - highest number of farmers/fishermen

 

 

Table 4 - Average Daily Basic Pay of Wage and Salary Workers by Major Industry Group,
Philippines: 2009 - 2011
(In Pesos)

MAJOR INDUSTRY GROUP 2009 2010 2011
ALL INDUSTRIES 290.73 306.53 317.44
Agricultural 145.14 152.01 158.20
Agriculture, Hunting and Forestry 142.87 150.66 156.81
Fishing 174.62 169.43 178.43
Non-Agricultural 317.84 334.69 349.01
Mining and Quarrying 241.06 252.78 262.36
Manufacturing 299.93 310.57 316.49
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply 465.62 491.50 542.45
Construction 276.64 285.08 296.93
Wholesale and Retail Trade, Repair of Motor Vehicles,
Motorcycles and Personal and Households Goods 257.71 274.54 275.81
Hotels and Restaurants 264.50 280.76 280.08
Transport, Storage and Communications 371.29 385.83 396.90
Financial Intermediation 515.55 529.99 528.57
Real Estate, Renting and Business Activities 426.24 456.61 475.41
Public Administration and Defense, Compulsory
Social Security 433.40 449.68 498.10
Education 522.52 566.97 618.53
Health and Social Work 434.36 464.53 470.50
Other Community, Social and Personal Service
Activities 307.97 316.89 325.90
Private Households with Employed Persons 125.88 133.20 138.99
Extra-Territorial Organization and Bodies 873.98 1,321.99 926.18

Note: Excludes those paid on commission basis, honorarium and boundary as in the case of jeepney/bus/tricycle drivers.
'Source of data: National Statistics Office, Labor Force Survey, Public Use Files.
Definition:
Basic Pay - pay for normal time prior to deduction of social security contributions, withholding taxes, etc.
It excludes allowances, bonuses, commissions, overtime pay, benefits in kind, etc.
Source : Bureau of Labor and Employment Statistics

 

 

Table 5. Labor Productivity by Industrial Origin
NATIONAL ACCOUNTS OF THE PHILIPPINES
Base Year: 2000

Level Growth Rates
Industry 2009 2010 2011 2012 09-10 10-11 11-12
Labor Productivity (in pesos, constant)
Total 151,092 158,182 159,296 167,852 4.7 0.7 5.4
Agriculture, Hunting, Forestry and Fishing 55,119 55,352 55,471 57,728 0.4 0.2 4.1
Industry 327,378 344,877 343,832 351,024 5.3 -0.3 2.1
Services 188,130 170,234 172,301 181,850 -9.5 1.2 5.5

Source: National Statistical Coordination Board

 

 

Table 6. Poverty Incidence for Basic Sectors: 2003, 2006, and 2009

Sector 2003 2006 2009 Increase/ Decrease
2003 - 2006 2006 - 2009
Philippines 24.9 26.4 26.5 1.5 0.1
Fishermen 35.0 41.4 41.4 6.4 0
Farmers 37.0 37.2 36.7 0.2 -0.5
Children 32.7 34.8 35.1 2.1 0.3
Self-employed and Unpaid Family Workers 4/ 28.0 29.4 29.0 1.4 -0.4
Women 24.0 25.1 25.1 1.1 0
Youth 19.0 20.8 21.8 1.8 1
Migrant and Formal Sector 14.6 15.7 16.7 1.1 1
Senior Citizens 15.1 16.2 15.8 1.2 -0.5
Individuals residing in urban areas 11.1 12.5 12.8 1.4 0.3

 

 

Table 7.1 Poverty Incidence for Farmers, by Region:
2009

Region 2009
Poverty Incidence Coefficient of Variation 90% Confidence Interval
Lower Limit Upper Limit
Philippines 36.7 2.2 35.4 38.1
Metro Manila
CAR (Cordillera Administrative Region) 30.0 9.2 25.4 34.5
Region I (Ilocos Region) 21.3 10.7 17.6 25.1
Region II (Cagayan Valley) 13.0 10.4 10.8 15.3
Region III (Central Luzon) 12.0 13.0 9.5 14.6
Region IV-A (CALABARZON) 24.5 10.3 20.4 28.7
Region IV-B (MIMAROPA) 33.8 8.3 29.2 38.3
Region V (Bicol Region) 41.3 5.5 37.5 45.0
Region VI (Western Visayas) 28.8 11.2 23.5 34.1
Region VII (Central Visayas) 53.8 5.4 49.0 58.6
Region VIII (Eastern Visayas) 46.7 5.7 42.3 51.1
Region IX (Zamboanga Peninsula) 54.0 5.6 49.0 59.0
Region X (Northern Mindanao) 52.3 5.1 47.9 56.6
Region XI (Davao Region) 44.3 9.9 37.1 51.5
Region XII (SOCCSKSARGEN) 38.0 8.3 32.8 43.2
Region XIII (Caraga) 49.7 6.2 44.6 54.9
ARMM (Autonomous Reg. of Muslim Mind.) 46.4 6.4 41.5 51.3

 

 

Table 7.2. Poverty Incidence for Fishermen, by Region:
2009

Region 2009
Poverty Incidence Coefficient of Variation 90% Confidence Interval
Lower Limit Upper Limit
Philippines 41.4 3.6 38.9 43.9
Metro Manila
CAR (Cordillera Administrative Region)
Region I (Ilocos Region) 43.8 16.3 32.0 55.5
Region II (Cagayan Valley)
Region III (Central Luzon) 20.0 10.6 16.5 23.5
Region IV-A (CALABARZON) 29.9 12.8 23.6 36.1
Region IV-B (MIMAROPA) 35.5 12.2 28.4 42.7
Region V (Bicol Region) 47.3 7.0 41.8 52.8
Region VI (Western Visayas) 30.4 14.8 23.0 37.8
Region VII (Central Visayas) 48.0 9.1 40.8 55.2
Region VIII (Eastern Visayas) 45.7 8.7 39.2 52.2
Region IX (Zamboanga Peninsula) 48.2 11.4 39.2 57.2
Region X (Northern Mindanao) 51.5 14.6 39.1 63.9
Region XI (Davao Region) 42.5 14.5 32.3 52.6
Region XII (SOCCSKSARGEN) 38.4 22.4 24.2 52.5
Region XIII (Caraga) 59.2 8.1 51.3 67.1
ARMM (Autonomous Reg. of Muslim Mind.) 43.8 12.7 34.7 52.9

 

 

Table 8.1 Percentage of working Children 5-17 Years Old by Age Group
and Major Industry Group, Philippines: 2007 - 2011(In Percent)

AGE GROUP AND MAJOR INDUSTRY GROUP 2009 2010 2011
5 - 17 YEARS
All Industries 2,199 2,095 2,482
Agriculture, Hunting and Forestry 55.1 54.0 51.4
Fishing 6.2 6.2 5.3
Total AHFF 61.3 60.2 56.6
Mining and Quarrying 0.8 0.8 0.8
Manufacturing 4.3 4.7 4.9
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply 0.0 0.0 0.0
Construction 1.3 1.6 1.4
Wholesale and Retail Trade; Repair of Motor - - -
Vehicles, Motorcycles and Personal - - -
and Household Goods 16.6 17.2 21.9
Hotels and Restaurants 2.4 2.3 2.3
Transport, Storage and Communications 1.6 1.9 1.6
Financial Intermediation 0.0 0.0 0.0
Real Estate, Renting and Business Activities 0.2 0.2 0.3
Public Administration and Defense; Compulsory - - -
Social Security 0.5 0.2 0.8
Education 0.1 0.1 0.1
Health and Social Work 0.0 0.0 *
Other Community, Social and Personal - - -
Service Activities 0.8 1.0 1.0
Private Households with Employed Persons 10.0 9.8 8.2
Extra-Territorial Organizations and Bodies - - -

Source of data: National Statistics Office, Labor Force Survey, Public Use Files.
Source from Bureau of Labor and Employment Statistics

 

 

Table 8.2 - Working Children 5 - 17 Years Old in Agriculture Industry Group,
Philippines: 2009 - 2011
(Based on Past Week Reference Period; In Thousands)

REGION AND MAJOR INDUSTRY GROUP 2009 2010 2011
Philippines 1,211 1,131 1,275
Metro Manila - * *
CAR (Cordillera Administrative Region) 4.5 3.8 3.1
Region I (Ilocos Region) 3.3 3.4 3.2
Region II (Cagayan Valley) 7.4 6.0 7.0
Region III (Central Luzon) 4.0 3.7 4.6
Region IV-A (CALABARZON) 4.0 4.5 4.2
Region IV-B (MIMAROPA) 5.8 5.0 5.7
Region V (Bicol Region) 7.8 8.5 7.8
Region VI (Western Visayas) 7.8 7.8 8.6
Region VII (Central Visayas) 7.6 8.8 10.4
Region VIII (Eastern Visayas) 7.8 6.0 7.0
Region IX (Zamboanga Peninsula) 8.1 8.2 6.3
Region X (Northern Mindanao) 11.9 14.1 12.6
Region XI (Davao Region) 4.7 3.7 4.5
Region XII (SOCCSKSARGEN) 6.9 7.7 7.2
Region XIII (Caraga) 4.8 4.5 3.9
ARMM (Autonomous Reg. of Muslim Mind.) 3.8 4.3 3.8

* Less than 500.
Source of basic data: National Statistics Office, Labor Force Survey, Public Use Files.
Source: Bureau of Labor and Employment Statistics

 

 

Table 8.3- Working Children 5 - 17 Years Old in Fishing Industry Group,
Philippines: 2009 - 2011
(Based on Past Week Reference Period; In Thousands)

REGION AND MAJOR INDUSTRY GROUP 2009 2010 2011
Philippines 136 130 131
Metro Manila 0.7 * 0.8
CAR (Cordillera Administrative Region) * * *
Region I (Ilocos Region) 2.9 2.3 4.6
Region II (Cagayan Valley) 0.7 * *
Region III (Central Luzon) 2.2 1.5 2.3
Region IV-A (CALABARZON) 2.9 3.8 6.1
Region IV-B (MIMAROPA) 8.8 10.0 7.6
Region V (Bicol Region) 11.0 10.8 11.5
Region VI (Western Visayas) 8.8 9.2 11.5
Region VII (Central Visayas) 7.4 11.5 9.2
Region VIII (Eastern Visayas) 14.7 12.3 14.5
Region IX (Zamboanga Peninsula) 5.9 5.4 6.1
Region X (Northern Mindanao) 3.7 3.8 3.1
Region XI (Davao Region) 2.2 3.1 3.8
Region XII (SOCCSKSARGEN) 6.6 2.3 2.3
Region XIII (Caraga) 3.7 4.6 4.6
ARMM (Autonomous Reg. of Muslim Mind.) 19.9 19.2 13.0

* Less than 500.

 

 

Table 9. General Appropriations Act
(in thousand pesos)

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Department of Agriculture(DA) 3,111,308 3,198,643 3,615,228 39,241,610 34,757,973 52,932,023 64,474,099
Total Appropriation (National) 635,041,878 1,066,179,857 1,170,318,753 1,304,406,400 1,000,387,764 1,245,193,270 1,368,229,156
% Share of DA 0.49 0.30 0.31 3.01 3.47 4.25 4.71

Source: Deparment of Budget and Management, GAA SUMMARY OF FY 2012 NEW APPROPRIATIONS

 

 

Table10. Agricultural loans granted by commodities, Philippines, 2007-2010
(Amounts in P Million)

COMMODITIES 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008r 2009p 2010
FOOD COMMODITIES 85043.8 99886.4 54,052 61,089 49,879 54,393 103,671 56,521 44,079 58,703 71,177 100,823 106,005
Cereals 12067.1 15168.1 14,380 14,246 16,662 18,735 14,160 14,373 16,197 19,893 28,817 37,119 39,755
Palay 13994.2 20946.4 12,430 12,888 14,139 14,537 12,530 12,849 15,070 18,510 27,096 34,818 37,337
Corn 1021.8 2067.1 1,801 1,238 1,492 965 1,477 1,237 1,008 1,178 1,671 2,255 2,370
Sorghum     4 9 39 40 46 74 31 43 18 25 27
Soybean and Other Feedgrains 144.7 89.3 146 111 992 3,194 107 214 88 161 33 21 21
Fruits, Vegetables & Rootcrops 9962.1 12295.2 7,201 14,483 5,403 6,042 5,790 8,167 6,410 11,171 12,938 26,954 27,705
Livestock and Poultry 21123.6 40433.0 22,116 21,880 21,462 24,677 32,497 17,465 13,918 21,680 23,813 29,934 31,347
Fisheries 18790.0 24037.7 10,355 10,481 6,352 4,940 51,224 16,516 7,554 5,960 5,609 6,815 7,198
EXPORT AND COMMERCIAL CROPS 20243.1 30849.4 21,639 20,737 18,229 17,425 19,660 11,632 12,116 13,819 14,427 18,934 19,743
Abaca and Other Fibers 992.8 1842.7 372 338 409 378 267 218 308 233 187 106 110
Coconut 4883.3 9767.4 6,043 3,431 4,435 5,173 4,143 4,597 5,573 6,091 5,933 9,418 9,655
Coffee and Cacao 847.7 1487.7 604 955 832 837 982 1,321 961 964 1,224 1,094 1,136
Cotton 40.5 633.1 67 87 56 78 3 4 - 2 - -
Rubber 58.6 167 234 75 20 17 61 30 24 24 87 189 200
Sugarcane 13088.0 16039.7 14,249 15,810 12,407 10,893 13,951 4,605 5,126 4,483 6,534 7,416 7,922
Tobacco 332.4 711.8 70 40 70 49 253 859 125 2,022 461 710 721
FORESTRY 1917.0 2105.9 4,316 1,483 8,948 12,076 1,131 718 1,733 1,301 156 202 212
OTHERS 12583.5 19080.2 12,930 18,249 19,160 23,546 23,008 24,923 12,084 17,824 30,113 26,888 28,679
Sub-Total 99767.4 154721.9 92,937 101,558 96,215 107,439 147,469 93,795 70,011 91,646 115,872 146,846 154,638
PDB Loansa/ 5280.1 7925.5 7,015 7,703 5,184 3,412 119 892 1,082 4,366 4,702 5,052 5,429
SMB Loansa/ 4168.2 5276.8 8,988 6,298 21,145 22,093 13,985 12,285 20,596 52,217 65,709 68,980 72,413
SSLA Loansa/ 5862.9 5553.5 5,567 7,037 916 2,214 2,314 1,964 1,539 5,603 6,773 6,984 7,201
TOTAL AGRI PRODN LOAN 115078.6 170479.7 114,506 122,596 123,460 135,158 163,887 108,936 93,228 153,832 193,055 227,861 239,681
TOTALAGRI LOANS GRANTED 299044.3 401680.6 335,311 414,275 326,995 341,661 467,822 476,145 302,162 386,070 463,165 606,610 624,542
Palay loans to total Food Commodity loans 16.5 21.0 23.0 21.1 28.3 26.7 12.1 22.7 34.2 31.5 38.1 34.5 35.2
AGRI PRODN LOAN TO                          
OUTPUT (GVA) RATIO (%) 21.05 19.78 21.65 22.33 20.62 21.39 22.32 14.00 10.92 16.30 17.51 20.01 20.27
TOTAL LOANS (MILLION PESO                          
AT CURRENT PRICE) 8,651 9,909 9,464,726 7,090,020 14,362,960 15,397,729 16,183,184 11,935,642 17,479,544 17,459,080 21,083,347 24,727,476 25,080,624
AGRI PRODN LOAN TO TOTAL                          
LOANS GRANTED RATIO (%) 1.33 1.72 1.2 1.73 0.86 0.88 1.01 0.91 0.53 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0
AGRICULTURAL LOAN TO TOTAL                          
LOANS GRANTED RATIO (%) 3.46 4.06 3.54 5.84 2.28 2.22 2.89 3.99 1.73 2.21 2.20 2.45 2.49

Source of data: ACPC

 

 

Table 11. Gross Value Added in Agriculture at constant 2000 by ASEAN Countries
in million US$

Countries 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Indonesia 22,929 23,056 24,065 24,821 25,070 24,736 25,271 25,747 26,585 27,502 28,544 29,348 30,146 31,158 32,239 33,796 35,133 36,184 37,252
Philippines 9,629 9,879 9,963 10,343 10,663 9,983 10,946 11,317 11,706 12,095 12,660 13,207 13,503 13,995 14,656 15,128 15,020 14,995 15,397
Thailand 9,114 9,500 9,882 10,320 10,248 10,097 10,332 11,074 11,433 11,511 12,970 12,663 12,429 13,056 13,211 13,763 13,947 13,627 14,182
Malaysia 7,735 7,588 7,396 7,731 7,783 7,568 7,604 8,065 8,051 8,282 8,781 9,192 9,430 9,921 10,046 10,480 10,548 10,767 11,365
Vietnam 5,686 5,878 6,160 6,431 6,705 6,946 7,309 7,648 7,876 8,204 8,501 8,872 9,229 9,569 9,929 10,393 10,583 10,876 11,311
Cambodia 1,012 1,110 1,147 1,162 1,225 1,289 1,317 1,312 1,359 1,325 1,465 1,452 1,680 1,772 1,861 1,968 2,074 2,156 2,223
Lao PDR 540 585 603 619 663 687 739 776 805 837 858 888 900 938 1,007 1,042 1,071 1,101 1,107

Source: Worldbank

 

 

Table 12. Share of Agriculture to economy (% of GDP)
1985-2011

Countries 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Vietnam 40.2 38.1 40.6 46.3 42.1 38.7 40.5 33.9 29.9 27.4 27.2 27.8 25.8 25.8 25.4 24.5 23.2 23.0 22.5 21.8 21.0 20.4 20.4 22.2 20.9 20.6 22.0
Indonesia 23.2 24.2 23.3 22.5 21.7 19.4 18.3 18.7 17.9 17.3 17.1 16.7 16.1 18.1 19.6 15.6 15.3 15.5 15.2 14.3 13.1 13.0 13.7 14.5 15.3 15.3 14.7
Philippines 24.6 23.9 24.0 23.0 22.7 21.9 21.0 21.8 21.6 22.0 21.6 20.6 18.9 14.8 15.2 14.0 13.2 13.1 12.7 13.3 12.7 12.4 12.5 13.2 13.1 12.3 12.8
Thailand 15.8 15.7 15.7 16.2 15.1 12.5 12.6 12.3 8.7 9.1 9.5 9.5 9.4 10.8 9.4 9.0 9.1 9.4 10.4 10.3 10.3 10.8 10.7 11.6 11.5 12.4 12.4
Malaysia 19.9 19.8 20.0 20.1 18.1 15.2 14.4 14.6 13.8 13.7 12.9 11.7 11.1 13.3 10.8 8.6 8.0 9.0 9.3 9.3 8.3 8.6 10.0 10.0 9.2 10.4 11.9

Source: Worldbank

 

 

Table 13. Employment in agriculture (% of total employment)
1980-2009

Countries 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Thailand 70.8 64.2 61.5 63.1 64.4 68.4 66.7 64.4 66.4 66.6 64 60.3 60.8 56.7 56 52 50 50.3 51.3 48.5 48.8 46 46.1 44.9 42.3 42.6 42.1 41.7 42.5 41.5
Indonesia 56.4 54.7 54.7 55.1 55 55.9 56.2 55.9 53.9 54.9 50.6 46.1 44 44 41.2 45 43.2 45.3 43.8 44.3 46.4 43.3 44 42 41.2 40.3 39.7
Philippines 51.8 51.5 52.1 52 50.1 49.6 49.8 47.8 46.1 45.1 45.2 45.3 45.4 45.8 44.7 44.1 41.7 40.4 38.6 38.8 37.1 37.2 37 36.6 36 36 35.8 35.1 35.3 35.2
Malaysia 37.2 35.7 31.2 30.6 30.4 30.4 30.6 30.9 30.6 28.7 26 25.3 21.8 21.1   20 19.4 17.3 18.8 18.4 18.4 15.1 14.9 14.3 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.8 14 13.5

Source: Worldbank

Posted: 12 April 2013

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